Richard A. Fenske, PhD, MPH

Associate Chair, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences
Professor, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences (Primary department)
Dr. Fenske's work has focused on the evaluation of environmental health risks in special populations, such as children, farm workers, and farm producers. Specialty areas include health risks of pesticide exposures, development of new exposure assessment methods, and investigation of the role of skin exposure for workers and children. His teaching activities include exposure assessment, environmental risk, and public health policy related to pesticides. Dr. Fenske directs the Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, a regional center devoted to the prevention of injury and illness among operators, workers, and their families in Northwest farming, forestry and fishing. He received the 2006 NIOSH Director’s Award for Excellence in Research and the 2007 Jerome Wesolowski Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Field of Exposure Science from the International Society of Exposure Science He currently serves as a member of National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine Roundtable on Environmental Health Sciences, Research, and Medicine. In 2008-2009 Dr. Fenske was Chair of the Institute of Medicine's Committee to Review the Health Effects of Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Seventh Biennial Update), and served from 2006-2009 as a member of the Environmental Protection Agency's Human Studies Review Board. He also authored the Chemical Hazards section of the International Labor Organization’s Protocol on Agricultural Health and Safety in 2009. He recently served as Co-Chair, Technical Advisory Group on Climate Change, Human Health and Security, Washington State (2010-12).

Contact Information

University of Washington
Office: HSB F-226A
Box: 357234
1959 NE Pacific Street
Seattle, WA 98195-
Tel: 206-543-0916

Research Interests

  • Evaluation of environmental health risks in special populations, such as children, farm workers, and farm producers.
  • KEYWORDS: Agricultural safety and health, Children's health, Cholinesterase monitoring, Climate change, Exposure assessment, Fluorescent tracer; Industrial hygiene; Lead paint; Occupational exposure; Pediatric environmental health; Pesticides; Pesticides and children; Risk assessment; Risk communication; Risk management; Zoonotic disease and vector control

Teaching interests

Technical and social aspects of risk assessment and risk management
Environmental sampling and analysis
Pesticides and public health policy


PhD, Environmental Health, University of California (Berkeley), 1984
MPH, Environmental Health, University of California (Berkeley), 1978
MA, Geography, University of California (Berkeley), 1976
MA, Comparative Religion, Columbia University, 1972


1. Hazard Characterization in Northwest Farming, Fishing and Forestry
The Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center has a variety of projects aimed at characterizing and reducing risks for workers and their families. Opportunities exist to work on projects that use epidemiologic methods, exposure assessment and control methods, and innovative technologies such as geographic information systems, as well as investigation of relationships between risks, behavior, and economics in farming, fishing and forestry.
2. New Safety Practices and Technologies to Minimize Pesticide Handler Exposures

We are currently working with orchard managers and pesticide handlers to design and test practical interventions that can reduce pesticide exposures among farm workers in Washington State, including new spray technologies to improve worker safety and minimize pesticide drift. We recently developoed a set of 'best practices' for pesticide handlers and are working to disseminate these practices regionally and nationally.
4. Ergonomic and Safety Hazards of Mobile Orchard Platforms
We are partnering with the Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission to evaluate new technologies such as mobile platforms that are being introduced into Washington orchards. Our current project focuses on postural and other stressors associated with repetitive work during pruning, green fruit thinning, and harvesting. We hope to collaborate with Washington State University investigators to include an analysis of changes in work organization and to compare platforms with ladders in regard to safety.
5. Comparative Risk Analysis of Alternative Pest Control Approaches in Washington State orchards
Azinphos-methyl, an organophosphorus insecticide widely used to control the codling moth in tree fruit, is no longer available to Washington State growers. As a result, a variety of alternative products are being introduced. This project, led by PhD student Jane Pouzou, aims to evaluate the risks for workers associated with these alternatives.
6. Climate Change and Human Health
Our group was funded through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to evaluate the historical and projected impacts of extreme heat events on human health in Washington State. This work is part of a larger University of Washington effort to characterize the impact of climate change in our region. We are working on new models to predict morbidity and mortality associated with heat waves and degraded air quality. We are also evaluating the impact of extreme heat events on demand for emergency medical services. Our goal is to assist the state and the region in adapting to new environmental conditions that are likely to affect the public's health.
7. Children's Exposure to Pesticides
Our group has focused on this topic for more than 15 years, with a particular interest in the children of agricultural workers. Current work focuses on pesticide exposure pathways for children in agricultural communities. We have particular interest in exposure related to pesticide drift, and parental transfer of pesticides from the workplace to the home. We are also exploring methods to improve and validate exposure and dose models for children's exposure to hazardous chemicals.
8. Flourescent Tracer Evaluation of Chemical Exposures
Our laboratory has the expertise to evaluate dermal exposures to chemicals with fluorescent tracers. Current projects include (1) use of the fluorescent tracer technique as a worker education tool among pesticide applicators in Washington State, and (2) development of a user manual and video for this technique.

3. Best Practices to Minimize Pesticide Drift
We are evaluating weather conditions that can affect pesticide drift and examining difference is spray technologies in terms of drift potential. Our current studies include measurement of pesticide drift from orchard airblast applications through the use of micronutrient tracers. This approach is cost effective, allowing collection of substantial data on drift patterns. We are also conducting research into possible notification methods for pesticide applications.
Selected Publications

(*) Dr. Fenske was graduate advisor for MPH, M.S. or Ph.D. thesis on which this work is based.

Original Scholarly Articles (peer-reviewed)

  1. Franklin CA, Fenske RA, Greenhalgh R, Mathieu L, Denley HV, Leffingwell JT, Spear RC. 1981. Correlation of urinary pesticide metabolite excretion with estimated dermal contact in the course of occupational exposure to Guthion. J Toxicol Environ Health 7:715-731.
  2. Fenske RA, Leffingwell JT, Spear RC. 1985 Evaluation of fluorescent tracer methodology for dermal exposure assessment. In: Dermal Exposure Related to Pesticide Use, ACS Symposium Series 273:377-393, American Chemical Society.
  3. Fenske RA, Leffingwell JT, Spear RC. 1986. A video imaging technique for assessing dermal exposure - I. Instrument design and testing. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47:764-770.
  4. Fenske RA, Wong SM, Leffingwell JT, R.C. Spear RC. 1986. A video imaging technique for assessing dermal exposure - II. Fluorescent tracer testing. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 47:771-775.
  5. Fenske RA, Sternbach T. 1987. Indoor air levels of chlordane in residences in New Jersey. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:903-910.
  6. Fenske RA, Horstman SW, Bentley RK. 1987. Assessment of dermal exposure to chlorophenols in timber mills. Appl Ind Hyg 2:143-147.
  7. Fenske RA, Hamburger SJ, Guyton CL. 1987. Occupational exposure to the fungicide Fosetyl-Al during treatment of ornamentals in greenhouses. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 16:615-621.
  8. Fenske RA. 1988. Visual scoring system for fluorescent tracer evaluation of dermal exposure to pesticides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 41:727-736.
  9. Fenske RA. 1988. Comparative assessment of protective clothing performance by measurement of dermal exposure during pesticide applications. Appl Ind Hyg 3:207-213.
  10. Fenske RA. 1988. Correlation of fluorescent tracer measurements of dermal exposure and urinary metabolite excretion during occupational exposure to Malathion. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 49:438-444.
  11. Fenske RA. 1988. Use of fluorescent tracers and video imaging to evaluate chemical protective clothing during pesticide applications. In Performance of Protective Clothing: 2nd Symposium, SZ Mansdorf, R. Sager, AP Nielsen (eds), STP 989:630-639, American Society for the Testing of Materials, Philadelphia, PA.
  12. Fenske RA, Birnbaum SG, Methner MM, Soto R. 1989. Methods for assessing fieldworker hand exposure to pesticides during peach harvesting. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 43:805-13.
  13. Fenske RA, Leffingwell JT. 1989. Method for the determination of Dialkylphosphate metabolites in urine for studies of human exposure to Malathion. J Agric Food Chem 37:995-998.
  14. Fenske RA. 1989. Validation of dermal exposure monitoring by biological monitoring: The fluorescent tracer technique and the patch technique. In Biological Monitoring for Pesticide Exposure, ACS Symposium Series, 382:70-84, American Chemical Society.
  15. Fenske RA, Black KG, Elkner KP, Lee C, Methner MM, Soto R. 1990. Potential exposure and health risks of infants following indoor residential pesticide applications. Am J Publ Health 80:689-693.
  16. Fenske RA. 1990. Nonuniform dermal deposition patterns during occupational exposure to pesticides. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19:332-337.
  17. Fenske RA, Elkner KE. 1990. Biological monitoring and multi-route exposure assessment of urban applicators during structural control treatments with Chlorpyrifos. Toxicol Ind Health 6:349-371.
  18. Fenske RA, Blacker AM, Hamburger SJ, Simon GS. 1990. Worker exposure and protective clothing performance during manual seed treatment with Lindane. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19:190-196.
  19. Elkner KE*, Fenske RA, Gallo M. 1991. Effect of systemic exposure to Parathion on the dark- adapted pupil dilation of Cynomologous monkeys. J Toxicol Environ Health 32:75-88.
  20. Fenske RA, Curry PB, Wandelmaier F. Ritter L. 1991. Development of dermal and respiratory sampling procedures for human exposure to pesticides in indoor environments. J Exposure Analysis Environ Epidem 1:11-30.
  21. Fenske RA. 1992. Differences in exposure potential for adults and children following residential insecticide applications. In Similarities and Differences between Children and Adults: Implications for Risk Assessment, PS Guzelian, CJ Henry, SS Olin (eds), ILSI Press, Washington DC, pp. 214-225.
  22. Fenske RA. 1992. Personal protective equipment. In Papers and Proceedings of the Surgeon General's Conference on Agricultural Safety and Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, PHS/CDC/NIOSH, National Technical Information Services, Springfield VA (NTIS No. RB 93-114890), pp. 340-350,
  23. Fenske RA. 1993. Dermal exposure assessment techniques. Annals Occup Hyg 37:687-706.
  24. Fenske RA, Lu C*. 1994. Determination of handwash removal efficiency: incomplete removal of the pesticide, chlorpyrifos, from skin by standard handwash techniques. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 55:425-432.
  25. Teschke K, Marion SA, Jin A, Fenske RA, van Netten C. 1994. Strategies for determining occupational exposures in risk assessments: a review and a proposal for assessing fungicide exposures in the lumber industry. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 55:443-449.
  26. Methner MM*, Fenske RA. 1994. Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications, Part I. Dermal exposure reduction due to directional ventilation and worker training. Appl Occ Environ Hyg 9:560-566.
  27. Methner MM*, Fenske RA. 1994. Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications, Part II. Chemical permeation through protective clothing in contact with treated foliage. Appl Occ Environ Hyg 9:567-574.
  28. Teschke K, Hertzman C, Fenske RA, Jin A, Ostry A, van Netten C, Leiss W. 1994. A history of process and chemical changes for fungicide application in the Western Canadian lumber industry: what can we learn? Appl Occ Environ Hyg 9:984-993.
  29. Fenske RA, van Hemmen JJ. 1994. Occupational skin exposure to chemical substances: setting limits. Ann Occup Hyg 38:333-336. [Editorial] Simcox NJ*, Fenske RA, Wolz S, Lee I-C, Kalman D. 1995. Pesticides in housedust and soil: exposure pathways for children of agricultural families. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:1126-1134.
  30. Simcox NJ*, Fenske RA, Wolz S, Lee I-C, Kalman D. 1995. Pesticides in housedust and soil: exposure pathways for children of agricultural families. Environmental Health Perspectives 103:1126-1134.
  31. Fenske RA, Teschke K. 1995. Study design considerations for occupational pesticide exposure assessment. In Methods of Pesticide Exposure Assessment, PB Curry, S Iyengar, PA Maloney and M Marconi, (eds), Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 51-59.
  32. Kissel JC, Richter KY, Fenske RA. 1996. Field measurement of dermal soil loading attributable to various activities: implications for exposure assessment. Risk Analysis 16:115-125.
  33. Kissel JC, Richter KY, Fenske RA. 1996. Investigation of factors affecting soil adherence to skin using a hand-press technique. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56:722-728.
  34. Methner MM*, Fenske RA. 1996. Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications, Part III. Variable exposure due to ventilation conditions and spray pressure. Appl Occ Environ Hyg 11:174-180.
  35. Black KG*, Fenske RA. 1996. Dislodgeability of chlorpyrifos and fluorescent tracer residues on turf: a comparison of wipe and foliar wash sampling techniques. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 31:563-570.
  36. Lu C*, Fenske RA, Anderson LC. 1997. Determination of atrazine levels in whole saliva and plasma in rats: potential of salivary monitoring for occupational exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health 50:101-111.
  37. Yuknavage K*, Fenske RA, Kalman D, Keifer M, Furlong C. 1997. Simulated dermal contamination with capillary samples and field cholinesterase biomonitoring. J Toxicol Environ Health 51:35-55.
  38. Fenske RA, Birnbaum SG. 1997. Second generation video imaging technique for assessing dermal exposure (VITAE System). Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 58(9):636-645.
  39. Fiedler N, Kipen H, Kelly-McNeil K, Fenske RA. 1997. Long-term use of organophosphates and neuropsychological performance. Am J Ind Med 32:487-496.
  40. Leung R, Koenig JQ, Simcox N, van Belle G, Fenske R, Gilbert SG. 1997. Behavioral changes following participation in a home health promotional program in King County, Washington. Environ Health Persp 105:1132-1135.
  41. Loewenherz C*, Fenske RA, Simcox NJ, Bellamy G, Kalman D. 1997. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers. Environ Health Persp 105:1344-1353. Corrections and Clarifications, Environ Health Persp 107(2):A61.
  42. Lu C*, Anderson LC, Morgan MS, Fenske RA. 1997. Correspondence of salivary and plasma concentrations of atrazine in rats under variable salivary flow rate and plasma concentration. J Toxicol Environ Health 52:317-329.
  43. Fenske RA. 1997. Pesticide exposure assessment of workers and their families. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews 12(2):221-237.
  44. Kissel JC, Shirai JH, Richter KY, Fenske RA. 1998. Empirical investigation of hand-to-mouth transfer of soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 60:379-386.
  45. Lu C*, Fenske RA. 1998. Air and surface chlorpyrifos residues following residential broadcast and aerosol pesticide applications. Env Science Technol 32:1386-1390.
  46. Lu C*, Anderson LC, Morgan MS, Fenske RA. 1998. Salivary concentrations of atrazine reflect free atrazine plasma levels in rats. J Toxicol Environ Health 53:283-292.
  47. Fenske RA, Schulter C, Lu C, Allen E. 1998. Incomplete removal of the pesticide captan from skin by standard handwash exposure assessment procedures. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 61:194-201.
  48. Kissel JC, Shirai JH, Richter KY, Fenske RA. 1998. Investigation of dermal contact with soil in controlled trials. J Soil Contamination 7:737-752.
  49. Lu C*, Fenske RA. 1999. Dermal transfer of pesticide residues from treated surfaces: comparison of hand press, hand drag, wipe and PUF roller measurements following residential flea control applications. Environ Health Perspect, 107:463-467. 
  50. Moate T, Lu C, Fenske RA, Hahne R, Kalman D. 1999. Improved cleanup and determination method of dialkyl phosphates in the urine of children exposed to organophosphorous insecticides. J. Anal. Toxicol, 23:230-236.
  51. Fenske RA, Simcox NJ, Camp JE, Hines CJ. 1999. Comparison of three methods for assessment of hand exposure to azinphos-methyl (guthion) during apple thinning. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 14:618-623.
  52. Simcox NJ, Camp J, Kalman D, Stebbins A, Bellamy, Lee I, Fenske RA. 1999. Farmworker exposure to organophosphorus pesticide residues during apple thinning in central Washington State. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 60:752-761.
  53. Kissel JC, Fenske RA. 2000. Improved estimation of dermal pesticide dose to agricultural workers upon reentry. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 15(3):1-7.
  54. Faustman EM, Silbernagel SM, Fenske RA, Burbacher TM, Ponce RA. 2000. Mechanisms underlying children’s susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Environ Health Persp 108(Supplement 1):13-21 (2000)
  55. Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Kalman D, Simcox NJ, Keifer MC, Lu C, Allen E. 2000. Biologically based pesticide dose estimates for children in an agricultural community. Environ Health Perspect 108(6):515-520.
  56. Doran EM*, Yost MG, Fenske RA. 2000. Measuring dermal exposure to pesticide residues with attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 64:666-72.
  57. Denovan LA*, Lu C, Hines CJ, Fenske RA. 2000. Saliva biomonitoring of atrazine exposure among herbicide applicators. International Arch Occup Environ Health 73:457-462.
  58. Fenske RA. 2000. Dermal exposure: a decade of real progress. Annals Occup Hygiene 44:489- 91. [Editorial]
  59. Lu C, Fenske RA, Simcox NJ, Kalman D. 2000. Pesticide Exposure of children in an agricultural community: evidence of household proximity to farmland and take home exposure pathways. Environ Res 84:290-302.
  60. Fenske RA, Lu C, Simcox NJ, Loewenherz C, Touchstone J, Moate TF, Allen EH, Kissel JC. 2000. Strategies for assessing children’s organophosphorus pesticide exposures in agricultural communities. J Exp Anal Environ Epid 10: 662-671.
  61. Lu C, Knutson DE*, Fisker-Anderson J, Fenske RA. 2001. Biological monitoring survey of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among pre-school children in the Seattle metropolitan area. Environ Health Perspect 109:299-303.
  62. Moate TF, Furia M, Curl C, Muniz JF, Jyu J, Fenske RA. 2002. Size exclusion chromatographic cleanup for GCMS determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in household and vehicle dust. J AOAC International 85:36-43.
  63. Fenske RA, Kedan G, Lu C, Fisker-Andersen JA, Curl CL. 2002. Assessment of organophosphorus pesticide exposures in the diets of preschool children in Washington State. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 12:21-28.
  64. Fenske RA. 2002. Incorporating health and ecologic costs into agricultural production. Environ Health Perspect 110(5):A228-229. [Editorial]
  65. Fenske RA, Lu C, Barr DB, Needham LL. 2002. Children’s exposure to chlorpyrifos and parathion in an agricultural community in central Washington State. Environ Health Perspect 110(5):549-553.
  66. Fenske RA, Birnbaum SG, Methner MM, Lu C, Nigg HN. 2002. Fluorescent tracer evaluation of chemical protective clothing during pesticide applications in central Florida citrus groves. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 8(3):319-331.
  67. Fenske RA, Hidy A, Morris SL, Harrington MJ, Keifer MC. 2002. Health and safety hazards in Northwest agriculture: setting an occupational research agenda. Am J Ind Med 42(S2):62-67.
  68. Koch D*, Lu C, Jolley L, Fisker-Andersen JA, Fenske RA. 2002. Temporal association of children’s pesticide exposure and agricultural spraying: report of a longitudinal biological monitoring study. Environ Health Perspect 110(8):829-833. 
  69. Curl CL*, Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Shirai JH, Moate TF, Griffith W, Coronado G, Thompson B. 2002. Evaluation of take-home organophosphorus pesticide exposure among agricultural workers and their children. Environ Health Perspect 110:787-92.
  70. Elgethun K*, Fenske RA, Yost MG, Palcisko GJ. 2003. Time-location analysis for exposure assessment studies of children using a novel global positioning system instrument. Environ Health Perspect 111:115-22.
  71. Thompson B, Coronado GD, Grossman JE, Puschel K, Solomon CC, Islas I, Curl CL, Shirai JH, Kissel JC, Fenske RA. 2003. Pesticide take-Home pathway among children of agricultural workers: study design, methods, and baseline findings. J Occup Environ Med 44:42-53.
  72. Foss CR, Allen EH, Fenske RA, Ramsey CA. 2003. Comparison of live skit and video delivery styles using presentations with and without fluorescent tracer dyes at pesticide applicator training for promotion of self-protection from dermal exposure. Journal of Pesticide Safety Education 4:1-9.
  73. Curl CL, Fenske RA, Elgethun K. 2003. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban pre-school children with organic and conventional diets. Environ Health Perspect 111:377-82.
  74. Fenske RA, Curl CL, Kissel JC. 2003. The effect of the 14-day agricultural restricted entry interval on azinphosmethyl exposures in a group of apple thinners in Washington State. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 38:91-97.
  75. Sechena R, Liao S, Lorenzana R, Nakano C, Polissar N, Fenske R. 2003. Asian American and Pacific Islander seafood consumption – a community-based study in King County, Washington. J Exp Anal Environ Epidemiol 13:256-66.
  76. Curl CL, Fenske RA, Elgethun K. 2003. Organophosphate exposure: response to Krieger et al. and Charnley. Environ Health Perspect 111:A269-70. [response to Letter to the Editor]
  77. Doran EM*, Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Curl CL, Simcox NJ. 2003. Impact of dermal absorption factors in occupational exposure assessment: comparison of two models for agricultural reentry worker exposure to azinphosmethyl. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 18:669-77.
  78. Wolz S*, Fenske RA, Simcox NJ, Palcisko GJ, Kissel JC. 2003. Residential arsenic and lead levels in an agricultural community with a history of lead arsenate use. Environ Research 93:293-300
  79. Lu C, Showlund-Irish R, Fenske RA. 2003. Biological monitoring of diazinon exposure using saliva in an animal model. J Toxico. Enviro. Health 66:2315-25.
  80. Lu C, Kedan G, Fisker-Andersen J, Kissel JC, Fenske RA. 2004. Multi-pathway organophosphorus pesticide exposures of pre-school children living in agricultural and non- agricultural communities. Environ Res 96:283-89.
  81. Ramaprasad J, Tsai M, Elgethun K, Hebert VR, Felsot A, Yost MG, Fenske RA. 2004. The Washington aerial spray drift study: assessment of off-target organophosphorus insecticide atmospheric movement by plant surface volatilization. Atmos Environ 38:5703-13.
  82. Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Shirai JH, Curl CL, Galvin K.2004. Agricultural task not predictive of children's exposure to OP pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 112:A865-6; [Letter] author reply A866.
  83. Kissel JC, Curl CL, Kedan G, Lu CA, Griffith W, Barr D, Needham L, Fenske RA. 2005. Comparison of organophosphorus pesticide metabolite levels in single and multiple urine samples collected from pre-school children in Washington State. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 15:164-171.
  84. Carden A, Yost MG, Fenske RA. 2005. Non-invasive spectroscopic method for the assessment of dermal uptake of pesticides. Appl Spectroscopy 59:293-99.
  85. Fenske RA, Lu C, Curl CL, Shirai JH, Kissel JC. 2005. Biological monitoring to characterize organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children and workers: an analysis of recent studies in Washington State. Environ Health Perspect 113:1651-7.
  86. Fenske RA. 2005. State of the art measurement of agricultural pesticide exposures. Scand J Work Environ Health 31 suppl 1:67-73. 
  87. Fenske RA, Bradman A, Whyatt RM, Wolff MS, Barr DB. 2005. Lessons learned for the assessment of children’s pesticide exposure: critical sampling and analytical issues for future studies. Environ Health Perspect 113:1455-62.
  88. Tsai M-Y, Elgethun K, Ramaprasad J, Yost MG, Felsot AS, Hebert VR, Fenske RA. 2005. The Washington aerial spray drift study: modeling pesticide spray drift deposition from an aerial application. Atmos Environ 39:6194-203.
  89. Fenske RA, Bradman A, Whyatt RM, Wolff MS, Barr DB. 2005. Lessons learned for the assessment of children’s pesticide exposure: critical sampling and analytical issues for future studies. Environ Health Perspect 113:1455-62.
  90. Weppner S, Elgethun K, Lu C, Hebert V, Fenske RA. 2006. The Washington aerial spray drift study: children’s exposure to methamidophos in an agricultural community following an following fixed-wing aircraft applications. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 16:387-96.
  91. Karr C, Murphy H, Glew G, Keifer MC, Fenske RA. 2006. Pacific Northwest health professionals survey on pesticides and children. J Agromedicine. 11:113-20.
  92. Lu C, Toepel K, Irish R, Fenske RA, Barr DB, Bravo R.2006. Organic Diets Significantly Lower Children’s Exposure to Commonly Found Organophosphorus Pesticides in Food. Environ Health Perspect 114:260-63.
  93. Hines CJ, Deddens JA, Lu C, Fenske R, Striley CA. 2006. Mixed-effect models for evaluating multiple measures of atrazine exposure among custom applicators. J Occup Environ Hyg 3:274-83.
  94. Rodriguez T, Younglove L, Lu C, Funez A, Weppner S, Barr DB, Fenske RA. 2006. Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua. Int J Occup Environ Health 12:312-20.
  95. Lu C, Rodriguez T, Funez A, Irish RS, Fenske RA. 2006. The assessment of occupational exposure to diazinon in Nicaraguan plantation workers using saliva biomonitoring. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1076:355-65.
  96. Elgethun K, Yost MG, Fitzpatrick CT, Nyerges TL, Fenske RA. 2007. Comparison of global positioning system (GPS) tracking and parent-report diaries to characterize children’s time- location patterns. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 17:196-206.
  97. Thompson B, Coronado GD, Vigoren EM, Griffith WC, Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Shirai JH, Faustman EM. 2008. Para Ninos Saludables: A community intervention trial to reduce organophosphate pesticide exposure in children of farmworkers. Environ Health Perspect 116:687-94.
  98. Hofmann JN, Carden A, Fenske RA, Ruark HE, Keifer MC. 2008. Evaluation of a clinic-based cholinesterase test kit for the Washington State Cholinesterase Monitoring Program. Am J Ind Med 51:532-8.
  99. Ramaprasad J, Tsai MG, Fenske RA, Faustman EM, Griffith WC, Felsot AS, Elgethun K, Weppner S, Yost MG. 2009. Children's inhalation exposure to methamidophos from sprayed potato fields in Washington State: exploring the use of probabilistic modeling of meteorological data in exposure assessment. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 19:613-23.
  100. Hofmann JN, Keifer MC, De Roos AJ, Fenske RA, Furlong CE, van Belle G, Checkoway H. 2009. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate- exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State. Occup Environ Med. 67:375-86.
  101. Hofmann JN, Keifer MC, Furlong CE, De Roos AJ, Farin FM, Fenske RA, van Belle G, Checkoway H. 2009. Serum cholinesterase inhibition in relation to paraoxonase (PON1) status among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers. Environ Health Perspect. 117:1402-8.
  102. Fenske RA. 2009. New Paths for Occupational Health and Safety in Sustainable Agricultural Systems. J Agromed, 14:388-9.
  103. Fenske RA. 2009. New Technologies and Worker Safety in Western Agriculture. J Agromed, 14:417-20.
  104. Farahat FM, Fenske RA, Olson J, Galvin K, Bonner MR, Rohlman DS, Lein PJ, Anger WK. 2010. Chlorpyrifos exposures in Egyptian cotton field workers. Neurotoxicology. 31:297-304.
  105. Jackson JE, Yost MG, Karr C, Fitzpatrick C, Lamb BK, Chung SH, Chen J, Avise J, Rosenblatt RA, Fenske RA. 2010. Public health impacts of climate change in Washington State: projected mortality risks due to heat events and air pollution. Climatic Change 102:159-86.
  106. Hofmann JM, Keifer MC, Checkoway H, DeRoos AJ, Farin FM, Fenske RA, Richter RJ, van Belle G, Furlong CE. 2010. Biomarkers of sensitivity and exposure in Washington state pesticide handlers. Adv Exp Med Biol. 660:19-27.
  107. Hofmann JN, Checkoway H, Borges O, Servin F, Fenske RA, Keifer MC. 2010. Development of a computer-based survey instrument for organophosphate and N-methyl-carbamate exposure assessment among agricultural pesticide handlers. Ann Occup Hyg. 54:640-50.
  108. Fenske RA. 2010. For Good Measure: the origins and prospects of exposure science (2007 Wesolowski Award Lecture). J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 20:493-502.
  109. Farahat FM, Ellison CA, Bonner MR, McGarrigle BP, Crane AL, Fenske RA, Lasarev MR, Rohlman DS, Anger WK, Lein PJ, Olson JR. 2011. Biomarkers of chlorpyrifos exposure and effect in Egyptian cotton field workers. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119:801-6.
  110. Griffith W, Curl CL, Fenske RA, Lu CA, Vigoren EM, Faustman EM. 2011. Organophosphate pesticide metabolite levels in pre-school children in an agricultural community: within- and between-child variability in a longitudinal study. Environ Research 111:751-6.
  111. Lein PJ, Bonner MR, Farahat FM, Olson JR, Rohlman DS, Fenske RA, Lattal KM, Lasarev MR, Galvin K, Farahart TM, Anger WK. 2012. Experimental strategy for translational studies of organophosphorus pesticide neurotoxicity based on real-world occupational exposures to chlorpyrifos. Neurotoxicol 2012; 33:6608.
  112. Fenske RA, Farahat FM, Galvin K, Fenske EK, Olson JR. Contributions of inhalation and dermal exposure to chlorpyrifos dose in Egyptian cotton field workers. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 2012; 18(3):198-209.
  113. Armstrong JL, Fenske RA, Yost MG, Galvin K, Tchong-French M, Yu J. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples. Atmospheric Environ 2013; 66:145-150.
  114. Balbus JM, Boxall AB, Fenske RA, MCKone TE, Zeise L. Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013; 32(1):62-78.
  115. Armstrong J, Fenske RA, Yost MG, Tchong-French M, Yu J. Comparison of polyurethane foam and XAD-2 sampling matrices to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in an agricultural community. Chemosphere 2013; 92:451-7.
  116. Fenske RA, Lu C, Negrete M, Galvin K. Breaking the take home pesticide exposure pathway for agricultural families: workplace predictors of residential contamination. Am J Ind Med 2013; 56(9):1063-71
  117. Armstrong J, Yu J, Dills R, Yost MG, Fenske RA. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for measurement of organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in community air samples. J Environ Sci Health: Part B 2014; 49(2):102-8.
  118. Busch Isaksen T, Yost M., Hom E, Fenske R. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change. Rev Environ Health 2014; DOI 10.1414/43f3h-2014-0029.
  119. Armstrong JL, Yost MG, Fenske RA. Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural community. Chemosphere 2014; 111:135-43.
  120. Handal AJ, McGough-Maduena A, Páez M, Skipper B, Rowland AS, Fenske RA, Harlow SD. A pilot study comparing observational and questionnaire surrogate measures of pesticide exposure among residents impacted by the Ecuadorian flower industry. Arch Environ Occup Health 2014; Jan 23 [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24455979.
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