Marilyn C. Roberts, PhD

Professor, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences (Primary department)
Adjunct Professor, Global Health
Adjunct Professor, Pediatric Dentistry
Dr. Robert's research interests include identification of vancomycin resistant enterococci [VRE] and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] in environmental samples, antibiotic resistance and mercury resistance genes in the environment, the mechanisms of resistance, how resistance spreads through bacterial populations in man and the environment and ultimately, how these genes affect therapy. The laboratory is also interested in antibiotic resistance in oral and urogenital bacteria in general. Another focus is on the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutants and how treatments affect the organism's cariogenic potential, as well as, levels in health and disease.

Contact Information

University of Washington
Office: F-161D
Box: 357234
Health Sciences
Seattle, WA 98195-
Tel: 206-543-8001
Tel: 206-543-6418
Fax: 206-543-3873

Research Interests

  • Environmental Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), Microbial food contaminants, Waterborne pathogenic microorganisms, Public Health microbiology, Children's health, Antibiotic resistant bacteria, Mercury resistant bacteria
  • KEYWORDS: Environmental microbiology; Food contaminants, microbial

Teaching interests

Molecular epidemiology, infectious diseases, antibiotic resistance, environmental microbiology laboratory sampling

Education

PhD, Microbiology, University of Washington, 1978
MS, Microbiology, University of Washington, 1977

Projects

MRSA contamination on fire station surfaces
MRSA contamination in other occupational environments
MRSA carriage in fire fighters and other occupations
Zoonotic pathogens in wild birds and their environmen
Macrolide and tetracycline resistance genes in the environment
Selected Publications

A. Peer Reviewed Research Papers

*graduate thesis adviser, *** graduate student, **postdoctoral adviser, + undergraduate

  1. Elwell, L.P., M. Roberts, L.W. Mayer and S. Falkow. Plasmid-mediated beta-lactamase production in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 11:528-533, 1977.
  2. Roberts, M. and S. Falkow. Conjugal transfer of R plasmids in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Nature (London) 266:630-631, 1977.
  3. Roberts, M., L.P. Elwell and S. Falkow. Molecular characterization of two beta-lactamase-specifying plasmids isolated from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 131:557-563, 1977.
  4. Roberts, M. and S. Falkow. Plasmid mediated chromosomal gene transfer in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Bacteriol. 134:66-70, 1978.
  5. Piot P., M. Roberts and G. Ninare. Beta-lactamase production in commensal Neisseriacae. Lancet i:619, 1979.
  6. Roberts M. and S. Falkow. In vivo conjugal transfer of R plasmids in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infect. Immun. 24:982-984, 1979.
  7. Roberts, M., P. Piot and S. Falkow. The ecology of gonococcal  plasmids. J. Gen. Microbiology 114:491-494, 1979.
  8. Roberts, M.C., C.D. Swenson, L.M. Owens and A.L. Smith.   Characterization of chloramphenicol resistant Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 18:610-615, 1980.
  9. Roberts, M.C. and A.L. Smith. Molecular characterization of “plasmid-free” antibiotic resistant Haemophilus influenzae.  J. Bacteriol. 144:476-479, 1980.
  10. Roberts, M., T.L. Stull and A.L. Smith. Comparative virulence in Haemophilus influenzae with a type b or type d capsule.  Infect. Immun. 32:518-524, 1981.
  11. Azemun, P., T. Stull, M. Roberts and A.L. Smith. Rapid detection of chloramphenicol resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 20:168-170, 1981.
  12. Johnson, M.A., W.L. Drew and M. Roberts. Branhamella (Neisseria) catarrhalis: a lower respiratory tract pathogen?  J. Clin. Microbiol. 13:1066-1069, 1981.
  13. Scheifele, D.W., S.J. Fussel and M.C. Roberts.  Characterization of ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 21:734-739, 1982.
  14. Wong, K., M.C. Roberts and A.L. Smith. The activity of Sch29482 against type b Haemophilus influenzae lacking or possessing beta-lactamase activity.  J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 9 suppl. C, 163-170, 1982.
  15. Roberts, M., A. Corney and W.V. Shaw. Molecular characterization of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases isolated from Haemophilus influenzae. J. Bacteriol. 151:737-741, 1982.
  16. Mendelmann, P.M., M.C. Roberts and A.L. Smith. Mutation frequency of Haemophilus influenzae to rifampin-resistance.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 22:531-533, 1982.
  17. Wong, K., M.C. Roberts, L. Owens, M. Fife and A.L. Smith.  Selective media for the quantitation of bacteria in cystic fibrosis sputum. J. Med. Microbiol. 17:113-120, 1984.
  18. Spiegel, C.A. and M. Roberts. Mobiluncus gen. nov., Mobiluncus curtisii subspecies curtisii sp. nov., Mobiluncus curtisii subspecies holmesii subsp. Nov., and Mobiluncus mulieris sp. nov., curved rods from the human vagina. Internat. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34:177-184, 1984.
  19. Stull, T.L., R.F. Jacobs, J.E. Haas, M.C. Roberts, C.B. Wilson and A.L. Smith. Strain and growth phase dependence of human serum activity against Haemophilus influenzae type b. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130:665-672, 1984.
  20. Marshall, B., M. Roberts, A. Smith and S.B. Levy. Homogeneity of tetracycline-resistance determinants in Haemophilus species. J. Infect. Dis. 149:1028-1029, 1984.
  21. Roberts, M., R.F. Jacobs, J.E. Haas and A.L. Smith. Adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to monkey respiratory tissue in organ culture. J. Gen. Microbiol. 130:1437-1447, 1984.
  22. Roberts, M.C., S.L. Hillier, F.O. Schoenknecht, and K.K. Holmes. Nitrocellulose filter blots for species identification of Mobiluncus curtisii and Mobiluncus mulieris. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20:826-827, 1984.
  23. Roberts, M.C., E.J. Baron, S.M. Finegold and G.E. Kenny. Antigenic distinctiveness of Mobiluncus curtisii and Mobiluncus mulieris. J. Clin. Micro. 21:891-893, 1985.
  24. Roberts, M.C., S.L. Hillier, F.O. Schoenknecht and K.K. Holmes.  Comparison of gram stain, DNA probe, and culture for the identification of Mobiluncus spp. in female genital specimens. J. Infect. Dis. 152:74-77, 1985.
  25. Roberts, M.C., L. Koutsky, D. LeBlanc, K.K. Holmes and G.E. Kenny. Tetracycline resistant Mycoplasma hominis strains containing streptococcal tetM sequences. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:141-143, 1985.
  26. Roberts, M.C., L.A. Actis and J.H. Crosa. Molecular characterization of chloramphenicol resistant Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 28:176-180, 1985. 
  27. Woloj, M., M.E. Tolmasky, M.C. Roberts and J.H. Crosa.  Plasmid-encoded amikacin resistance to multiresistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:315-319, 1986.
  28. Roberts, M.C. and G.E. Kenny. Dissemination of the tetM tetracycline resistance determinant to Ureaplasma urealyticum.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 29:350-352, 1986.
  29. Roberts, M.C., C.L. Mintz and S. Morse. Characterization of Haemophilus parainfluenzae strains with low-Mr or ladder-like lipopolysaccharides. J. Gen. Microbiol. 132:611-616, 1986.
  30. Roberts, M., T.A. Bell, K.I. Sandstrom, A.L. Smith and K.K. Holmes. Characterization of Haemophilus spp. isolated from infant conjunctivitis. J. Med. Microbiol. 21:219-224, 1986.
  31. Tolmasky, M.E, M. Roberts, M. Woloj and J.H. Crosa. Molecular cloning of amikacin resistance determinants from a Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmid.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:315-320, 1986.
  32. Morse, S.A., S.R. Johnson, J.W. Biddle and M.C. Roberts.  High-level tetracycline resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is result of acquisition of streptococcal tetM determinant. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:664-670, 1986.
  33. Roberts, M.C., S.L. Hillier, J. Hale, K.K. Holmes, and G.E.  Kenny. Tetracycline resistance and tetM in pathogenic urogenital bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 30:810-812, 1986.
  34. Roberts, M.C. and G.E. Kenny. Tetracycline resistant Ureaplasma urealyticum. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 5:S338-S340, 1986.
  35. Kenny G.E., F.D. Cartwright and M. Roberts. Agar dilution method for determination of antibiotic susceptibility of Ureaplamsa urealyticum. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 5:S332-S334, 1986.
  36. Roberts, M.C., B. Moncla and G.E. Kenny. Chromosomal DNA probes for the identification of Bacteroides species. J. Gen. Microbiol. 133:1423-1430, 1987.
  37. Roberts, M.C., C. McMillian and M.B. Coyle. Whole-chromosomal DNA probes for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:1239-1243, 1987.
  38. Roberts, M.C., and G.E. Kenny. Conjugal transfer of transposon Tn916 from Streptococcus faecalis to Mycoplasma hominis. J. Bacteriol. 169:3836-3839, 1987.
  39. Roberts, M.C., M. Hooton, W. Stamm, K.K. Holmes, and G.E. Kenny. DNA probes for detection of Mycoplasma hominis in genital specimens. Israel J. Med. Sci. 23:618-620, 1987.
  40. Roberts, M., and H. Brunner. Interest Session: Chemotherapy in mycoplasma infections. Israel J. Med. Sci. 23:781-782, 1987.
  41. Brown, J.T.*, and M.C. Roberts. Cloning and characterization of tetM from a Ureaplasma urealyticum strain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:1852-1854, 1987.
  42. Roberts, M.C., B. van Klingeren, J.H.T. Wagenvoort, and J.S. Knapp. tetM, b-lactamase-containing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (tetracycline resistant and penicillinase producing) in the Netherlands. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:158, 1988.
  43. Hooton, T.M., M.C. Roberts, P.L. Roberts, K.K. Holmes, W.E. Stamm, and G.E. Kenny. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in men with urethritis as determined by DNA probe. Lancet i:266-268, 1988.
  44. Sanchez-Pescador, R., J.T. Brown*, M. Roberts, and M.S. Urdea.  The nucleotide sequence of the tetracycline resistance determinant tetM from Ureaplasma urealyticum. Nucl. Acid Res. 16:1216-1217, 1988. 
  45. Sanchez-Pescador, R., J.T. Brown*, M. Roberts, and M.S. Urdea.  Homology of the TetM with translational elongation factors: implications for potential modes of tetM conferred tetracycline resistance. Nucl. Acid Res. 16:1218, 1988. 
  46. Roberts, M.C., and J.S. Knapp.  Host range of the conjugative 25.2 Mdal tetracycline resistance plasmid from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:488-491, 1988.
  47. Knapp, J.S., S.R. Johnson, J.M. Zenilman, M.C. Roberts, and S.A. Morse. High-level tetracycline resistance resulting from TetM in strains of Neisseria species, Kingella denitrificans, and Eikenella corrodens. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:765-767, 1988.
  48. Roberts, M.C., and B.J. Moncla. Tetracycline resistance and TetM in oral anaerobic bacteria and Neisseria perflava-N. Sicca. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1271-1273, 1988.
  49. Roberts M.C., and J.S. Knapp. Transfer of b-lactamase plasmids from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to Neisseria meningitidis and commensal Neisseria species by the 25.2-Megadalton conjugative plasmid. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1430-1432, 1988.
  50. Moncla B.J., L. Strockbine, P. Braham, J. Karlinsey and M.C. Roberts. The use of whole cell DNA probes for the identification of Bacteroides intermedius in a dot blot assay. J. Dent Res. 67:1267-1270, 1988.
  51. Kenny, G.E., T.M. Hooton, M.C. Roberts, F.D. Cartwright, and J. Hoyt. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:103-107, 1989.
  52. Roberts, M.C. Plasmids of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Neisseria species. Rev. Clin. Microbiol. 2:S18-S23, 1989.
  53. Handsfield, H.H., R.J. Rice, M.C. Roberts, and K.K. Holmes.  Localized outbreak of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Implications for introduction and spread of gonorrhea in a community. JAMA 261:2357-2361, 1989.
  54. Knapp, J.S., J.M. Zenilman, R.J. Rice, M.C. Roberts, S.A. McIntire, and S.A. Morse. Frequency of non-b-lactamase strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae possessing the 24.5-Mdal conjugative plasmid in the United States. Sex. Transm. Dis. 16:79-83, 1989.
  55. Roberts, M.C., and J.S. Knapp. Transfer frequency of various 25.2 Mdal TetM-containing plasmids in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex. Trans. Dis. 16:91-94, 1989.
  56. Levy, S.B., L.M. McMurry, V. Burdett, P. Courvalin, W. Hillen, M.C. Roberts, and D. E. Taylor. Nomenclature for tetracycline resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1373-1374, 1989.
  57. Roberts, M.C.  Plasmid-mediated TetM in Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1611-1613, 1989.
  58. Baron, E.J. **, P. Summanen, J. Downes, M.C. Roberts, H. Wexler, and S.M. Finegold. Bilophila wadsworthia, gen. nov. and sp. nov., a unique Gram-negative anaerobic rod recovered from appendicitis specimens and human feces. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:3405-3411, 1989.
  59. Roberts, M.C. and S.L. Hillier. Genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in urogenital bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:261-264, 1990.
  60. Roberts, M.C. Characterization of the Tet M determinant in urogenital and respiratory bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:476-478, 1990.
  61. Sarafian, S.K., C.A. Genco, M.C. Roberts, and J.S. Knapp.  Acquisition of b-lactamase and Tet M-containing conjugative plasmids by phenotypically different strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex. Transm. Dis. 17:67-71, 1990.
  62. Roberts, M.C., and J. Lansciardi. Transferable Tet M in Fusobacterium nucleatum. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:1836-1838, 1990.
  63. Roberts, M.C., B.A. Brown, V.A. Steingrube, and R.J. Wallace Jr. Genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:1816-1818, 1990.
  64. Roberts, M.C., G. Jahn, P.K. Kohl, and G.E. Kenny.  Tetracycline resistant mycoplasmas from Thailand and South America. Eur. J. Epidem. 6:440-441, 1990.
  65. Hillier, S.L., C.W. Crithchlow, C.E. Stevens, M.C. Roberts, P. Wolner-Hanssen, D.A. Eschenbach, and K.K. Holmes.  Microbiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical correlates of vaginal colonization by Mobiluncus species. Genitouri. Med. 67:26-31, 1991.
  66. Roberts, M.C. Tetracycline resistance in Peptostreptococcus species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:1682-1684, 1991.
  67. Schwebke, J.R., S.L. Hillier, M.C. Roberts, and S.A. Lukehart. Identification of new antigenic subgroups within the genus Mobiluncus. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:2204-2208, 1991.
  68. Brown, M.B., and M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline resistance determinants in streptococcal species isolated from the bovine mammary gland. Vet. Microb. 29:173-180, 1991.
  69. Roberts, M.C., Y. Pang*, R.C. Spencer, T.G. Winstanley, B.A. Brown, and R.J. Wallace Jr. Tetracycline resistance in Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis-demonstration of two clonal outbreaks using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:2453-2455, 1991.
  70. Roberts, M.C., B.J. Moncla, and S.L. Hillier.  Characterization of unusual tetracycline resistant gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:2655-2657, 1991.
  71. Riley, D.E., M.C. Roberts, T. Takayama, and J.N. Krieger. Development of polymerase chain reaction-based (PCR) diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis using cloned, genomic sequences. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:465-472, 1992.
  72. Sorum, H., M.C. Roberts, and J.H. Crosa. Identification and cloning of a tetracycline resistance gene from the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:611-615, 1992.
  73. Roberts, M.C., R.B. Leonard, A.M. Briselden, F.D. Schoenknecht, and M.B. Coyle. Characterization of antibiotic resistant Corynebacterium striatum strains. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 30:463-474, 1992.
  74. Facinelli, B., R. Tarsi, E. Giovanetti, P.E. Varaldo, and M.C. Roberts. Molecular characterization of a b-lactamase-producing Haemophilus paraphrohaemolyticus strain. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 30:551-553, 1992.
  75. Facinelli, B. M. C. Roberts, E. Giovanetti, C. Casolari, U. Fabio, and P.E. Varaldo. Genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in food borne isolates of Listeria innocua. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:614-616, 1993.
  76. Roberts, M.C., Y. Pang*, D.E. Riley, S.L. Hillier, R.C. Berger, and J.N. Krieger. Detection of Tet M and Tet O tetracycline resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction.  Molec. Cell. Probes. 7:387-393, 1993.
  77. Hooton, T.M., M.C. Roberts, and G. E. Kenny. Mycoplasma genitalium and nongonococcal urethritis. Lancet. 343:69, 1994.
  78. Roberts, M.C., L.V. McFarland, P. Mullany, and M.E. Mulligan. Characterization of the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33:419-429, 1994.
  79. Roberts, M.C., L.V. McFarland, P. Mullany, and M.E. Mulligan. Characterization of the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 33:419-429, 1994.
  80. Leng, Z.*, G.E. Kenny, and M.C. Roberts. Evaluation of the detection limits of PCR for identification of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical samples. Molec. Cell. Probes. 8:101-106, 1994.
  81. Pang, Y.*, B.A. Brown, V.A. Steingrube, R.J. Wallace Jr., M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline resistance determinants in Mycobacterium and Streptomyces species. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1408-1412, 1994.
  82. Winterscheid, K.K., W.L. Whittington, M.C. Roberts, J.R. Schwebke, and K.K. Holmes. Decreased susceptibility to penicillin G and Tet M plasmids in genital and anorectal isolates of Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1661-1663, 1994.
  83. Roberts, M.C., and M.B. Brown. Macrolide-lincosamide resistance determinants in streptococcal species isolated from the bovine mammary gland. Vet. Microbiol. 40:253-261, 1994.
  84. Wasteson, Y.**, S. Hoie and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus suis. Vet. Microbiol. 41:41-49, 1994.
  85. Roberts M.C. Epidemiology of tetracycline resistance determinants. Trends in Microbiology; Virulence, Infection and Pathogenesis. 2:353-357, 1994.
  86. Pang, Y.*, T. Bosch+ and M.C. Roberts. Single polymerase chain reaction for the detection of tetracycline resistant determinants Tet K and Tet L. Molec. Cell. Probes 8:417-422, 1994.
  87. Xia, M.*, W.L. Whittington, K. K. Holmes, F. Plummer and M. C. Roberts. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genomic analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Infect. Dis. 171:455-458, 1995.
  88. Roe D.E.*, A. Weinberg and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter (Wolinella) rectus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:S370-S371, 1995.
  89. Roberts, M.C. Distribution of tetracycline and macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLS) genes in anaerobic bacteria. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:S367-S369, 1995.
  90. Roe D.E.*, P. Braham, A. Weinberg and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of tetracycline resistance in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Oral. Microbiol. Immun. 10:227-232, 1995.
  91. Whittington W.L., M.C. Roberts, J. Hale, and K.K. Holmes. Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to glycylcyclines. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:1864-1865, 1995.
  92. Xia, M.* Y. Pang* and M.C. Roberts. Detection of two groups of 25.2 Mda Tet M plasmids by polymerase chain reaction of the downstream region. Molec. Cell. Probes 9:327-332, 1995.
  93. DePaola, A. ***, M.C. Roberts. Class D and E tetracycline resistance determinants in gram-negative catfish pond bacteria. Molec. Cell. Probes 9:311-313, 1995.
  94. Roe D.E.*, A. Weinberg and M.C. Roberts. Mobile rRNA methylase genes in Campylobacter (Wolinella) rectus. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 36:738-740, 1995.
  95. Roberts, M. C., B. Facinelli, E. Giovanetti, C. Casolari and P. E. Varaldo.  Transferable erythromycin resistance in food isolates of Listeria. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:269-270, 1996.
  96. Wasteson, Y.**, D. E. Roe*, K. Falk, and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of antibiotic resistance in Actinobacillus. Pleuropneumoniae. Vet. Microbiol. 48:41-50, 1996.
  97. Roe D.E.*, A. Weinberg and M.C. Roberts.  Mobility of rRNA methylase genes in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:457-464, 1996.
  98. Marquez, C., *** M. Xia*, G. Borthagaray, C. Alen, A. Acevedo, M. Castro, J-A. R. Dillon and M.C. Roberts. Molecular epidemiology of tetracycline-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae from Uruguay. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:839-841, 1996.
  99. Roberts, M.C., W. Chung*, and D.E. Roe*.  Characterization of tetracycline and erythromycin determinants in Treponema denticola.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:1690-1694, 1996.
  100. Xia, M.*, M.C. Roberts, W.L. Whittington, J.S. Knapp, K.K. Holmes, J-A.R. Dillon, and T. Wi. Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of strains from North America, Hawaii and the Philippines. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:2439-2440, 1996.
  101. Roberts, M.C. Tetracycline resistant determinants: mechanisms of action, regulation of expression, genetic mobility and distribution. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 19:1-24, 1996.
  102. Werckenthin, C., S. Schwarz and M.C. Roberts.  Integration of pT181-like tetracycline resistance plasmids into large staphylococcal plasmids involves IS257. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:2545-2544, 1996.
  103. Krieger, J.N., D.E. Riley, M.C. Roberts, and R.E. Berger. Prokaryotic DNA sequences in patients with chronic idiopathic prostatitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:3120-3128, 1996.
  104. Doran, J.L., Y. Pang*, K.E. Mdluli, A.J. Moran, T.C. Victor, R.W. Stokes, E. Mahenthiralingam, B.N. Kreiswirth, J.L. Butt, G.S. Baron, J.D. Treit, V.J. Kerr, P.D. van Helden, M.C. Roberts and F.E. Nano. Mycobacterium tuberculosis efpA encodes an efflux protein of the QacA transporter family. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 4:23-32, 1997.
  105. Roberts, M.C.  Oral bacteria: Reservoirs for antibiotic resistance traits. APUA Newsletter. 15: 1-6, 1997.
  106. Leng, Z*, D.E. Riley, R.E. Berger, J.N. Krieger, and M.C. Roberts.  Distribution and mobility of the tetracycline resistant determinant Tet Q.  J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 40:551-559, 1997.
  107. Xia, M.*, W.L., Whittington, K.K. Holmes and M.C. Roberts.  Genomic homogeneity of the AHU/IA-1,2 phenotype of Neisseria gonorrhoeae during its elimination from an urban population. Sex. Transm. Dis. 24:561-566, 1997.
  108. Seppala, H., M. Skurnik, H. Soini, M.C. Roberts and P. Huovinen.  A novel erythromycin resistance methylase gene (ermTR) in Streptococcus pyogenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:257-262, 1998.
  109. Kilmarx, P.H., J.S. Knapp, M. Xia*, M.E. St. Louis, S.W. Neal, S. Sayers, L.J. Doyle, M.C. Roberts and W.L. Whittington.  Intercity spread of gonococci with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones: a unique focus in the United States.  J. Infec. Dis. 177:677-682, 1998.
  110. Roberts, M.C. Introduction: Impact of bacterial antibiotic resistance on oral health: what is the relevance? J. Antimicrob Agents 9:233-234, 1998.
  111. Roberts, M.C. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms in bacteria of oral and upper respiratory origin. Internat. J. Antimicrob Agents 9:255-269, 1998.
  112. Rudolph, K.M.*, A.J. Parkinson and M.C. Roberts.  Molecular analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and antibiogram of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B isolates from selected areas within the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:2703-2707, 1998.
  113. Andres, M.T., W.O Chung*, M.C. Roberts and J.F. Fierro.  Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolated in Spain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:3022-3023, 1998.
  114. Roberts, M.C.  Antibiotic resistance in oral/respiratory bacteria.  Crit Rev Oral Bio & Med. 9:522-540, 1998.
  115. Luna, V.A.*, and M.C. Roberts.  The presence of the tetO gene in a variety of tetracycline resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes from Washington State. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 42:613-619, 1998.
  116. Schwarz, S, M.C. Roberts, C. Werckenthin, Y. Pang*, and C. Lange.  Tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus spp. from domestic and pet animals. Vet Microbiol. 63:217-228, 1998.
  117. Chung, W.O.*, C. Werckenthin, S. Schwarz and M.C. Roberts.  Host range of the ermF rRNA methylase gene in human and animal bacterial. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 43:5-14, 1999.
  118. Marquez, C., M. Xia*, G. Borthagaray, and M.C. Roberts. Conjugal transfer of the 3.05 b-lactamase gonococcal plasmid by the 25.2 Mda gonococcal plasmid in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sex. Transm. Dis. 26:157-159, 1999.
  119. Roberts, M.C., W.O. Chung*, D. Roe*, M. Xia*, C. Marquez, G. Borthagaray, W.L. Whittington, and K.K. Holmes. Erythromycin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae and oral commensal Neisseria spp. carry known rRNA methylase genes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:1367-1372, 1999.
  120. Levy, S.B., L.M. McMurry, T. M. Barbosa, V. Burdett, P. Courvalin, W. Hillen, M.C. Roberts, J.I. Rood, and D.E. Taylor. Nomenclature for new tetracycline resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:1523-1524, 1999.
  121. Luna, V.A.*, P. Coates, E.A. Eady, J. Cove, T.T.H. Nguyen+, and M.C. Roberts. A variety of Gram-positive bacteria carry mobile mef genes. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:19-25, 1999.
  122. Chung, W.O.*, K. Young, Z. Leng*, and M.C. Roberts. Mobile elements carrying ermF and tetQ genes in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:329-335, 1999.
  123. Roberts, M.C. Telithromycin. Cur. Opin. Anti-infect. Invest Drugs 1:506-513, 1999.
  124. Luna, V.A.*, and M.C. Roberts. In-vitro activities of 11 antibiotics against 75 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced susceptibility to penicillin isolated from patients in Washington State. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44:578-580, 1999.
  125. Rudolph, K. M.*, M.J. Crain, A.J. Parkinson and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of a multidrug-resistant clone of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B in Alaska using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PspA serotyping. J. Infect. Dis. 180:1577-1583, 1999.
  126. Luna, V.A.*, and M.C. Roberts. MICs for Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced penicillin susceptibility.  Drugs. 58 (Suppl. 2):381-382, 1999.
  127. Roberts, M.C., J. Sutcliffe, P. Courvalin, L.B. Jensen, J. Rood, and H. Seppala. Nomenclature for macrolide and macrolide-lincosamide streptogramin B antibiotic resistance determinants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43:2823-2830, 1999.
  128. Roberts, M.C. APUA-Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics. ASM News 66:108, 2000.
  129. Luna, V.A.*, D.B. Jernigan, A. Tice, J.D. Kellner, and M.C. Roberts.  A novel multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clone serogroup 19 from Washington State is identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and IS1167 restriction fragment length pattern. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38: 1575-1580, 2000.
  130. Luna, V.A.**, S. Cousin, Jr.*, W.L.H. Whittington, and M.C. Roberts. Identification of the conjugative mef gene in clinical Acinetobacter junii and Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:2503-2506, 2000.
  131. Persson, G.R., Schlegel-Bregenzer, B., W.O. Chung*, L. Houston, T. Oswald, and M.C. Roberts. Serum antibody titers to Bacteroides forsythus in elderly subjects with gingivitis or periodontitis. J. Clin Perio. 27:839-845, 2000.
  132. Haasum Y., K. Strom, R. Wehelie, V. Luna**, M.C. Roberts, J. Maskell, L. M. C. Hall, and G. Swedberg. Amino acid repetitions in dihydropterote synthase of Streptococcus pneumoniae are sufficient for development of sulfonamide resistance and lead to limited consequences for enzyme characteristics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:805-809, 2001.
  133. Chopra, I and M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline antibiotics: Mode of action, applications, molecular biology and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microb Mol Bio Rev. 65:232-260, 2001.
  134. Rudolph K.M.*, A.J. Parkinson, and M.C. Roberts. Mechanisms of erythromycin and trimethoprim resistance in the Alaska Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B clone. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 48:317-319, 2001.
  135. Roberts M.C. Antibiotic toxicity, interactions and resistance development.  Periodontology 2000. 28:280-297, 2002.
  136. Roberts M.C. Resistance to tetracycline, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, trimethoprim and sulfonamide drug classes. Molec. Biotechnology 20:261-283, 2002.
  137. Chung, W.O.*, J. Gabany*, G.R. Persson, and M.C. Roberts.  Distribution of erm(F) and tet(Q) genes in four oral bacterial species and genotypic variation between resistant and susceptible isolates. J Clin Periodon. 29:152-158, 2002.
  138. Roberts M.C., C.A. Riedy, S.E. Coldwell, S. Nagahama, K. Judge, M. Lam, T. Kaakko, J.L. Castillo, and P. Milgrom.  How xylitol-containing products affect cariogenic bacteria. JADA 133:435-441, 2002.
  139. Luna, V.A. **, M. Heiken, K. Judge, C. Uelp, N. Van Kirk, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Distribution of the mef(A) gene in Gram-positive bacteria from healthy Portuguese children. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46:2513-2517, 2002.
  140. Agerso, Y. *** , L.B. Jensen, M. Givskov, and M.C. Roberts.  The identification of a tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), on a Tn916-like transposon, in the Bacillus cereus group. FEMS Micobiol. Letters. 214:251-256, 2002.
  141. Starr, J.A. *, T.C. White, B. Leroux, H.S. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao and M.C. Roberts. Persistence of Canadida albicans oral carriage among healthy Portuguese school children followed for three years. Oral Microbiol. Immun. 7:304-310, 2002.
  142. Sanai, Y. *, G.R. Persson, J.R. Starr, H.S. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao and M.C. Roberts. Presence and antibiotic resistance of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens in children. J Clin Periodo. 29:929-934, 2002.
  143. Lewis, C.H., C.A. Reidy, D.C. Grossman, P.K. Domoto, and M.C. Roberts. Oral health of young Alaska Native children and their caregivers: A population based study. Alaskan Medicine 44:83-87, 2002.
  144. Cousin, S.L.*, Jr, W.L. Whittington, and M.C. Roberts.  Acquired macrolide resistance genes and the 1 bp deletion in the mtrR promoter in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51:131-133, 2003.
  145. Roberts, M. C. Tetracycline therapy: Update. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36: 462-467, 2003.
  146. Miranda, C.D., C. Kehrenberg, C. Ulep, S. Schwarz, and M.C. Roberts. Diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in bacteria from Chilean Salmon farms. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:883-888, 2003.
  147. Roberts, M. C. Acquired tetracycline and/or macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin resistance in anaerobes. Anaerobe 9:63-69, 2003.
  148. Giovanetti, E., A. Brenciani, R. Lupidi, M.C. Roberts, and P.E. Varaldo.  The presence of the tet(O) gene in erythromycin and tetracycline-resistant strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  47:2844-2849, 2003.
  149. Call, D. R., M. K. Bakko***, M. J. Krug, and M.C. Roberts. Identifying antimicrobial resistance genes using DNA microarrays. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:3290-3295, 2003.
  150. Cousin, S.L., Jr,* W.L. Whittington, and M.C. Roberts.   Acquired macrolide resistance genes in pathogenic Neisseria spp. isolated between 1940 and 1987.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:3877-3880, 2003.
  151. Amin, M.S.***, R.L. Harrison, T. S. Benton, M. C. Roberts, and P. Weinstein.  Effect of povidone-iodine on Streptococcus mutans in children with extensive dental caries.  Pediatr. Dent. 26:5-10, 2004.
  152. Wilkerson, C. *** , N. van Kirk, M. Samadpour, and M. C. Roberts. Antibiotic resistance and distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolated from humans and bovine.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:1066-1067, 2004.
  153. Cousin, S.L., Jr*, W.L. Whittington, and M.C. Roberts. Insertion of a thymine (+T) in the 13 base pair inverted repeat of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae mtr promoter region and antibiotic susceptiblity.  Internat. J. Antimicrob Agents. 23:418-419, 2004.
  154. Ojo, K.K.**, C. Ulep, N. Van Kirk, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. The mef(A) gene predominates among seven macrolide resistant genes identified in 13 Gram-negative genera from healthy Portuguese children. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.  48:3451-3456, 2004.
  155. Ojo, K.K.**, D. Tung+, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Gram-positive merA Gene in Gram-negative oral and urine bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 238:411-416, 2004.
  156. Roberts, M. C.   Resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin, ketolide and oxazolidinones antibiotics.  Molecular Biotechnology.  28:47-62, 2004.
  157. Roberts, M.C.  Distribution of macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin, ketolide and oxazolidinones (MLSKO) resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria.  Current Drug Targets: Infectious Disorders. 4:207-215, 2004.
  158. Brenciani, A., K.K. Ojo, A. Monachetti, S. Menzo, M.C. Roberts, P.E. Varaldo, and E. Giovanetti. Distribution and molecular analysis of mef(A)-containing elements in tetracycline-susceptible and –resistant Streptococcus pyogenes clinical isolates with efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance.  J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 54:991-998, 2004.
  159. Casas, C.+, E.C. Anderson, K.K. Ojo**, I. Keith, D. Whelan, D. Rainnie and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of pRAS1-like plasmids from atypical North American psychrophilic Aeromonas salmonicida. FEMS Micro Lett. 242:59-63, 2005.
  160. Samadpour, M., M.C. Roberts, C. Kitts, W. Mulugeta, and D. Alfi. The use of ribotyping and antibiotic resistant patterns for identification of host sources of Escherichia coli strains.  Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 40:63-68, 2005.
  161. Roberts, M.C.  MiniReview: Update on acquired tetracycline resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245:195-203, 2005.
  162. Levy, S.B., L.M. McMurry and M.C. Roberts. Tet protein hybrids.  Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:3099, 2005.
  163. Tao, R., R.J., Jurevic, K.K. Coulton, M.T. Tsutsui, M.C. Roberts, J.R. Kimbal, N. Wells, J. Berndt, and B.A. Dale. Salivary antimicrobial peptide expression and caries experience in children. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:3883-3888, 2005.
  164. Soge, O.O.*, A.M. Queenan, K.K. Ojo, B.A. Adniyim and M.C. Roberts.  CTX-M-15 extended–spectrum b-lactamases from Nigerian Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57:24-30, 2006.
  165. Ojo, K.K. **, C. Kehrenberg, H.A. Odlola, S. Schwarz, and M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline-resistant plasmids from uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Southwestern Nigeria. J. Chemother. 18:112-114, 2006.
  166. Blanco, M. ***, C.B. Gutierrez-Martin, E.F. Rodriguez-Ferri, M.C. Roberts, and J. Navas. Distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants in Spanish Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:702-708, 2006.
  167. Milgrom, P., K. Ly++, M.C. Roberts, M. Rothen, G. Mueller, and D.K. Yamaguchi. Mutans streptococci dose response to xylitol chewing gum. J. Dent Res. 85:177-181, 2006.
  168. Ojo, K.K. **, M.J. Striplin, C.C. Ulep, N.S. Close***, J. Zittle, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts.  Staphylococcus macrolide efflux msr(A) gene characterized in Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Corynebacterium, and Pseudomonas isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:1089-1091, 2006.
  169. Ly, K. ++, P. Milgrom, M.C. Roberts, D.K. Yamaguchi, M. Rothen, and G. Mueller. Linear response of mutans streptococci to increasing frequency of xylitol chewing gum use: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN43479664].  BMC Oral Health 6:6, doi:10.1186/1472-6831-6-6, 2006.
  170. Ojo, K.K.**, N.L. Ruehlen, N.S. Close***, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts.  The presence of a conjugative Gram-positive Tn2009 in Gram-negative commensal bacteria.  J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57:1065-1069, 2006.
  171. Roberts, M.C. Multidrug resistant genes associated with a 86 kb island in Acinetobacter baumannii. Trends in Microbiol. 14:375-378, 2006.
  172. Sapkota, A.R.***, K.K. Ojo**, M.C. Roberts, K.J. Schwab. Antibiotic resistance genes in multidrug-resistant Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. recovered from indoor air of a concentrated swine feeding operation.  Lett. App. Microb. 43:534-540, 2006.
  173. Soge O.O.*, B.A. Adeniyi, and M.C. Roberts. New antibiotic resistance genes associated with CTX-M plasmids from uropathogenic Nigerian Klebsiella pneumoniae. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 58:1048-1053, 2006.
  174. Riedy, C.A., P. Milgrom, K.A. Ly, M. Rothen, G. Mueller, M.K. Hagstrom, E. Tolentino, L. Zhou, M.C. Roberts.  A surrogate method for comparison analysis of salivary concentrations of xylitol-containing products.  BMC Oral Health 8:5 doi 10.1186/1472-6831-8-5, 2008.
  175. Roberts, M.C., B. G. Leroux, J. Sampson ***, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao.  Dental amalgam antibiotic and/or mercury resistant bacteria. J. Dent. Res. 87:475-479, 2008.
  176. Roberts, M.C. Update on macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, ketolide and oxazolidinone (MLSKO) resistance genes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 282: 147-159, 2008.
  177. Pearson A.L.***, M.C. Roberts, O.O. Soge**, I. Ivanova+, J.D. Mayer and J.S. Meschke.  Utility of EC3MTM petrifilmsTM and sanitary surveys for source water assessment in southwestern Uganda. Water SA. 34:279-284, 2008.
  178. Ly, K.A., C. Riedy, P. Milgrom, M. Rothen, M.C. Roberts and L. ZhouXylitol gummy bears snacks: a school-based randomized clinical trial. BMC Oral Health 8:20 doi:10.1186/1472-6831-8-20, 2008.
  179. Rhodes, L.D., O.T. Nguyen+, R.K. Deinhard, T.M. White, L.W Harrell, and M.C. Roberts.  Characterization of Renibacterium salmoninarum with reduced susceptibility to macrolide antibiotics by a standardized antibiotic susceptibility test. Dis. Aquatic Org. 80:173-180, 2008
  180. Soge, O.O.**, N. Beck, T.M. White and M.C. Roberts.  A Novel Transposon, Tn6009, Composed of a Tn916-like Element Linked to Staphylococcus aureus-like mer Operon. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62:674-680, 2008.
  181. Soge, O.O.**, L. Tivoli***, J.S. Meschke, and M.C. Roberts.  A Conjugative Macrolide Resistance Gene, mef(A), in Environmental Clostridium perfringens Carrying Multiple Macrolide and/or Tetracycline Resistance Genes. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106:34-40, 2009.
  182. Ghosh, S.***, J. Gralnick, M.C. Roberts, M. Sadowsky, and T. LaPara. Sphingobacterium sp. strain PM2-P1-29 harbors a functional tet(X) gene encoding for the degradation of tetracycline. J. Appl. Microbiol.  106:1336-1342, 2009.
  183. Soge, O.O.**, M.A. Giardino+, I. Ivanova+, A.L. Pearson***, J.S. Meschke, and M.C. Roberts. Low prevalence of antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria from rural Southwestern Ugandan groundwater. Water SA. 35:343-347, 2009.
  184. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge**, M.A. Giardino+, E. Mazengia***, G. Ma, and J.S. Meschke.  Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus spp. in Marine Environments from the West Coast of the USA. J. App. Microbiol. 107:300-307, 2009.
  185. Milgrom, P., K.A. Ly, O.K. Tut, L. Mancl, M.C. Roberts, K. Briand, and M.J. Gancio.  Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries.  Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 163:601-607, 2009. Sheiham Award Best paper of the year.
  186. Soge, O.O.**, J.S. Meschke, D.B. No, and M.C. Roberts.  Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (MRCoNS) isolated from West Coast public marine beaches. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 64:1148-1155, 2009.
  187. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge**, and D.B. No. Characterization of macrolide resistance genes in Haemophilus influenzae isolated from children with Cystic Fibrosis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66:100-104, 2011.
  188. Roberts, M.C. Environmental macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin and tetracycline resistant bacteria. Frontier: Antimicrob Resist. Chemoth. Antimicrob Resist. Chemoth. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2011.00040; http://www.frontiersin.org/antimicrobials,_resistance_and_chemotherapy/10.3389/fmicb.2011.00040/abstract  2:1-8, 2011.
  189. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge**, D.B. No, N. Beck, and J.S. Meschke.  Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from fire stations in two Northwest fire districts. Am. J. Infect. Control. 39:382-389, 2011.
  190. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge**, D.B. No, S.E. Helgeson*, and J.S. Meschke. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from public surfaces on a University campus, student homes and local community. J. Appl. Microbiol. 110:1531-1537, 2011.
  191. Levin-Edens, E., J.S. Meschke and M.C. Roberts.  Quantification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in marine and fresh water samples by most-probable-number. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:3541-3543, 2011.
  192. Soge, O.O. and M.C. Roberts. tet(M)-carrying Haemophilus influenzae as a potential reservoir for mobile antibiotic resistance genes. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66:1642-1643, 2011.
  193. Levin-Edens, E.*, N. Bonilla+, J.S. Meschke and M.C. Roberts.  Survival of environmental and clinical strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] in Pacific Northwest and fresh waters. Water Res. 45:5681-5686, 2011.
  194. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge**, J.A. Horst***, K.A. Ly and P. Milgrom. MRSA from dental school surfaces and students.  Am. J. Infect. Control. 39:628-632, 2011.
  195. Levin-Edens, E.*, O.O. Soge**, D.B. No, A. Stiffarm+, J.S. Meschke and M.C. Roberts. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Northwest marine and fresh water recreational beaches. FEMS Microbiol Ecol.  79:412-420, 2012.

In Press

Papers Submitted

van Hoek A, D. Mevius, B. Guerra, P. Mullany, A.P. Roberts, M.C. Roberts, S. Schwarz, H. Aarts. Acquired antibiotic resistance genes: an overview. Frontier in Microbiol: Antimicrobials Resistance & Chemotherapy

C. Other Published Scholarly Papers

  1. Falkow, S., L.P. Elwell, M. Roberts, F. Heffron and R. Gill.  p. 115-129. The transposition of ampicillin resistance: Nature of ampicillin in Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. IN R-factors: Their properties and possible control symposium. Baden near Vienna, April 27-29, 1977.  Topics in Infectious Disease, Vol. 2. J. Drews and G. Hogenauer (eds). Springer-Verlas, Austria, 1977.
  2. Elwell, L.P., M. Roberts and S. Falkow. Common beta-lactamase-specifying R plasmids isolated from the genera Haemophilus and Neisseria. p. 255-256. IN Microbiology 1978. D. Schlessinger (ed).  American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C., 1978.
  3. Roberts, M., L.P. Elwell and S. Falkow. Introduction to the mechanisms of genetic exchange in the gonococcus: Plasmid and conjugation in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. p. 38-43. IN Immunobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. G.F. Brooks, E.C. Gotschlick, K.K. Holmes, W.D. Sawyer, F.E. Young (eds). American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C., 1978.
  4. Tompkins, L.S., M. Roberts, J.H. Crosa and S. Falkow.  Epidemiology of plasmid-mediated ampicillin resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. p. 177-184. IN Genetics of Industrial Microorganisms. O.K. Sebek and A.I. Laskin (eds).  American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1978.
  5. Smith, A.L., R.S. Daum, D. Scheifele, V. Syriopolou, D.R. Averril, M.C. Roberts and T.L. Stull. Pathogenesis of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. p. 89-109. IN Haemophilus influenzae: epidemiology, Immunology and Prevention of Disease. S.H. Sell and P.F. Wright (eds). Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc. 1982.
  6. Smith, A.L., M.C. Roberts, T. Stull, P. Mendelman, and J.E. Haas. Mechanisms of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis.  p. 11-21. IN Bacterial Meningitis. M.A. Sande, A.L. Smith and R.K. Root (eds). Churchill Livingstone. New York. 1985.
  7. Roberts, M.C. Antibiotic resistance among mycoplasmas and other urogenital bacteria. APUA Newsletter. 3:1-2, 1985.
  8. Roberts, M.C. Tetracycline resistance in genital tract bacteria. Infections in Medicine. 5:199-203, 1988.
  9. Morse, S.A., S.R. Johnson, J.W. Biddle and M.C. Roberts. High-level tetracycline resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to the acquisition of the tetM determinant. p. 153-158. IN Gonococci and meningococci.  J. T. Poolman (ed). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
  10. Knapp J.S., J.M. Zenilman, M.C. Roberts, S.R. Johnson, M.E. Shepherd, J.W. Biddle, and S.A. Morse.  High-level resistance associated with tetM in Neisseria meningitidis and other Neisseriaceae. p. 137-141. IN Gonococci and meningococci. J. T. Poolman (ed). Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1988.
  11. Roberts, M.C. Tetracycline resistance in genital tract bacteria. Physician Assistants in Primary and Hospital Care 5:200-203, 1988.
  12. Roberts, M.C. and M.B. Coyle. Whole-chromosomal DNA probes for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex. p. 131-143. IN Nucleic Acid and Monoclonal Antibody Probes; Applications in Diagnostic Microbiology. B. Swaminathan and G. Prakash (eds). Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, N.Y., 1989.
  13. Roberts, M.C. Gene transfer in the urogenital and respiratory tract, p. 347-375. IN Gene Transfer in the Environment. S.B. Levy and R.V. Miller (eds). McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. New York, N.Y., 1989.
  14. Roberts, M.C. Characterization and epidemiology of tetracycline resistance genes, p 39-44. IN application of molecular biology in diagnosis of infectious diseases. O. Olsvik and G. Bukholm (eds). Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine. Oslo, Norway, 1990.
  15. Sorum, H., M.C. Roberts, and J.H. Crosa. Isolation and characterization of a tetracycline resistance gene from the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida, p 45-48. IN application of molecular biology in diagnosis of infectious diseases. O. Olsvik and G. Bukholm (eds). Norwegian College of Veterinary Medicine. Oslo, Norway, 1990.
  16. Roberts, M.C. TetM in mycoplasmas of human origin. p. 56-59. IN Recent advances in mycoplasmology:Baden near Vienna, 1988. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Mikrobiologie und Hygiene. Suppl 20. G. Stanek, G.H. Cassell, J.G. Tully, R.F. Whitcomb (eds). Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1990.
  17. Brown, B.A., M.C. Roberts, and R.J. Wallace, Jr. Update on changes in antimicrobial resistance in Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. APUA Newsletter. 8:3, 1990.
  18. Roberts, M.C. Antibiotic resistance and it's implication for public health. Washington Public Health. 9:9-10, 1991.
  19. Roberts, M.C., and J. Lansciardi. Characterization of the 25.2 Mda Tet M-containing plasmids. p. 533-538. IN Neisseriae 1990: proceedings of the seventh international pathogenic Neisseria conference, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, September 9-14, 1990. M. Achtman, P. Kohl, C. Marchal, G. Morelli, A. Seiller and B. Thiesen (eds). Walter de Gruyter. Berlin, 1991.
  20. Roberts, M.C. Gene transfer and its impact on the vaginal ecosystem. p. 11-17. B.J. Horowitz and P-A Mardh (eds.). IN Vaginitis and vaginosis. Wiley-Liss Inc. New York, N.Y. 1991.
  21. Roberts, M.C. Book review. Genital papillomaviruses and related neoplasmas. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:1034, 1991.
  22. Roberts, M.C. Antibiotic resistance. IN Mycoplasmas: Molecular biology and pathogenesis. p. 513-523. J. Maniloff, R.N. McElhaney, L. Finch and B.J. Baseman (eds.) American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 1992.
  23. Roberts, M.C., W.L. Whittington, L.A.. Slaney, I. MacLean, P.P. Plourde, J. Ombette, P. Odhiambo, J.O. Ndinyua-Achola, and F. Plummer. Detection of TRNG Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Kenya. p. 106-110. IN Pathobiology and Immunobiology of Neisseriaceae. Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica. Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, 1994.
  24. Winterscheid, K.K., W.L. Whittington, M.C. Roberts, J.R. Schwebke, and K.K. Holmes. Tet M plasmids in anogenital isolates of Neisseria meningitidis. p. 135-139. IN Pathobiology and Immunobiology of Neisseriaceae. Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica. Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, 1994.
  25. Roberts, M.C.  Genetic mobility and distribution of tetracycline resistance determinants. p. 206-218.  IN Antibiotic Resistance: Origins, Evolution, Selection and Spread. Ciba Foundation symposium 207. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK 1997.
  26. Roberts, M.C. Resistance to tetracyclines, macrolides, trimethoprim and sulfonamides. p. 641-663.  In Molecular Bacteriology: Protocols and Clinical Applications. Methods in Molecular MedicineTM.  N. Woodford, and A.P Johnson (eds). The Humana Press Inc. Totowa, NJ. 1998.
  27. Stepal P., M.C. Roberts, M. Goldoft, J. Kobayashi, M. Curtis. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for investigation of a cluster of invasive Group A streptococcal illness- Spokane, Washington, 1999. MMWR. 48:681-683, 1999.
  28. Roberts, M.C. Tetracycline resistance. In Encyclopedia of Medical Genomics and Proteomics. J. Fuchs, and M. Podda (eds). p.1262-1265. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York, NY. 2004.
  29. Roberts, M.C. Tetracycline resistance due to ribosomal protection proteins. p. 19-28, IN Frontiers in Antibiotic Resistance: A Tribute to Stuart B. Levy. D.G. White, M.N. Alekshun and P.F. McDermott (eds). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 2005.
  30. Roberts, M.C. and J. Sutcliffe. Macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin, ketolide and oxazolidinone resistance. p. 66-84.  IN  Frontiers in Antibiotic Resistance: A Tribute to Stuart B. Levy. D.G. White, M.N. Alekshun and P.F. McDermott (eds). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 2005.
  31. Sutcliffe, J., and M.C. Roberts. Streptococcus pneumoniae. p. 314-329. IN Frontiers in Antibiotic Resistance: A Tribute to Stuart B. Levy. D.G. White, M.N. Alekshun and P.F. McDermott (eds). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 2005.
  32. Schwarz, S., A. Cloeckaert, and M.C. Roberts. Mechanisms and spread of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. p. 73-98IN  Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 2006.
  33. Roberts, M.C.  rRNA methylases and resistance to macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin, ketolide and oxazolidinone (MLSKO) antibiotics. p. 53-63. IN Enzyme-Mediated Resistance to Antibiotics: Mechanisms, Dissemination, and Prospects for Inhibition. R.A. Bonomo and M.E. Tolmasky (eds). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C., 2007.
  34. Roberts, M.C., and S. Schwarz. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol resistance mechanisms. p. 183-193.  IN Antimicrobial Drug Resistance; volume 1 Mechanisms of Drug Resistance.  D.L. Mayers, S.A. Lerner, M. Ouellette, and J. Sobel. (eds). Humana Press Inc. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg, New York, NY, 2009.
  35. Roberts, M.C. The evolution of antibiotic-resistant microbes in foods and host ecosystems. p. 213-229. IN Food-borne Microbes: Shaping the Host Ecosystem. L.-A. Jaykus, H. Wang and L. Schlesinger (eds). American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 2009.
  36. Roberts, M.C., J.S. Meschke, O.O. Soge, and K.A. Reynolds. Comment on MRSA studies in high school wrestling and athletic training facilities. J. Environ. Health. 72:48-49, 2010.
  37. Roberts, M.C., and K. C. Favorite. International Association of Fire Chiefs website “Firefighter/EMT safety, health & survival: MRSA Contamination –Not limited to patient contact”  http://www.iafc.org/displayindustryarticle.cfm?articlenbr=43852, 2010.
  38. Roberts, M.C. Acquired tetracycline resistance genes. p. 543-568. IN Antibiotic Discovery and Development. T.J. Dougherty and M.J. Pucci, (eds). Springer Science+Business Media, New York, NY, 2012.
  39. Roberts, M.C. Mechanisms of bacterial antibiotic resistance and lessons learned from environmental tetracycline resistant bacteria. P. 93-121. IN Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment. P. Keen and M Montforts (eds). John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
  40. Roberts, M.C., J. Horst, and P. Milgrom. Response to Letter: MRSA infection transmission in dental health care setting. Am. J. Infect. Control. 40:288, 2012.

In Press

Submitted

G. Published Abstracts

  1. Roberts, M., L.P. Elwell and S. Falkow. Plasmid mediated b-lactamase resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. 140, New Orleans, LA. May 8-13, 1977.
  2. Roberts, M., C. Swenson, L. Owens and A.L. Smith.  Characterization of chloramphenicol resistant Haemophilus influenzae. Combined abstracts from the meeting of the American Pediatric Society and the Society for Pediatric Research, 14(4):563, San Antonio, April 30-May 2, 1980.
  3. Roberts, M. and A.L. Smith. Characterization of chloramphenicol resistant Haemophilus influenzae. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. 120, 1980.
  4. Stull, T.L., R.F. Jacobs, M.C. Roberts, C.B. Wilson and A.L. Smith. Mechanisms of humoral immunity to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined abstracts from the meeting of the American Pediatric Society and the Society for Pediatric Research, p. 622, San Francisco, CA. April 28-30. 1981.
  5. Owens, L., C. Swensen, M. Roberts, and A.L. Smith. Susceptibility of ampicillin-sensitive and ampicillin-resistant type b Haemophilus influenzae to ceftizoxine.  Abstracts of the Twenty-First Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. No. 596, 1981.
  6. Smith, A.L., M.C. Roberts and K. Wong. The activity of Sch29482 against type b Haemophilus influenzae lacking or possessing detectable beta-lactamase activity. Abstracts of the Twenty-First Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. No. 747, 1981.
  7. Mendelman, P.M., M.C. Roberts and A.L. Smith. Chromosome-linked ampicillin resistance in Haemophilus influenzae.  Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. 55, 1982.
  8. Roberts, M.C., R.F. Jacobs, J.E. Haas and A.L. Smith.  Adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to respiratory tissue in organ culture. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. 25, New Orleans, LA. March 6-11, 1983.
  9. Roberts, M., C.A. Spiegel, and K.K. Holmes. Nucleic acid relationships among anaerobic curved rods. Workshop on Anaerobic Curved Rods and Bacterial Vaginosis. Stockholm, Sweden. January 26-29, 1984.
  10. Actis, L.A., M. Roberts, and J.H. Crosa. Molecular cloning of the chloramphenicol resistance genes from three Haemophilus influenzae plasmids.  Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. 98,  New Orleans, LA. March 6-11, St. Louis, MO. March 4-9, 1984.
  11. Roberts, M.C., K. Naylor, K. Mack, and K.K. Holmes.  Haemophilus strains isolated from infant conjunctivitis.  Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, p. 281, 1984.
  12. Roberts, M., S. Hillier, F. Schoenknecht, and K. Holmes.   Identification of Mobiluncus (anaerobic curved rods) in patient specimens from the vagina. International Conjoint STD Meeting, p. 74, Montreal, Canada. June 17-21, 1984.
  13. Hillier, S., M. Roberts, F. Schoenknecht, and K. Holmes.   Identification of motile anaerobic curved rods (Mobiluncus) from vaginal specimens with DNA probes. Annual Meeting of the Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists, Salt Lake City, Utah. June, 13-16, 1984.
  14. Roberts, M.C. and G.E. Kenny. Tetracycline resistance Mycoplasma hominis containing streptococcal tetM sequences.  Sixth International Meeting International Society for STD Research, Brighton, England. July 31-August 2, 1985.
  15. Hillier, S.L., M.C. Roberts, C. Critchlow, C. Stevens, F.D. Schoenknecht, P. Wolner-Hansen, and K.K. Holmes. Clinical, epidemiological and microbiological correlates of vaginal colonization by Mobiluncus species. Sixth International meeting International Society for STD Research, Brighton, England. July 31-August 2, 1985.
  16. Roberts, M.C., S.L. Hillier, J. Hale, and G.E. Kenny.  Tetracycline resistant genera isolated from the genital tract.  Abstracts of the Twenty-fifth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Minneapolis, MN. p. 98, Sept. 29-Oct. 2, 1985.
  17. Kenny, G.E., and M. Roberts. Detection of antibiotic susceptibility. International Symposium Ureaplasmas of Humans: With Emphasis Upon Maternal and Neonatal Infections. p. 51,  Seattle, WA. Oct. 10-12, 1985.
  18. Roberts, M.C., and G.E. Kenny. Tetracycline resistance in Ureaplasma urealyticum. International Symposium Ureaplasmas of Humans: With Emphasis Upon Maternal and Neonatal Infections.  Seattle, WA. p. 53, Oct. 10-12, 1985.
  19. Roberts, M.C., and M. Coyle. DNA probes for rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 355, 1986.
  20. Moncla, B.J. and M.C. Roberts. Identification of oral pathogenic bacteria using DNA probes. Abstracts of Annual Session American Association for Dental Research, p. 223, 1986.
  21. Roberts, M.C., M. Hooton, W. Stamm, K.K. Holmes, G.E. Kenny. DNA probes for detection of Mycoplasma hominis in genital specimens. Abstracts of the Sixth International Congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology. p. 51, Birmingham, AL. 1986.
  22. Knapp, J.S., J.M. Zenilman, M.C. Roberts, S.R. Johnson, M.E. Shepherd, J.W. Biddle, S.A. Morse. High-level tetracycline resistance in Neisseria meningitidis and other Neisseriaceae associated with tetM. Fifth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference. Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, Sept. 14-20, 1986.
  23. Morse, S.A., S.R. Johnson, J.W. Biddle and M.C. Roberts. High-level tetracycline resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to the acquisition of the tetM determinant. Fifth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference. Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, Sept. 14-20, 1986.
  24. Coyle, M.B. and M.C. Roberts. Evaluation of DNA probes for rapid identification of Mycobacteria: Cost effective tools? Recent advances in Laboratory Medicine Workshop.  Seattle. WA., Sept. 19, 1986.
  25. Martin, J.T.* and M.C. Roberts. Cloning a tetracycline resistance determinant from Ureaplasma urealyticum. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology. Atlanta GA. p. 21, March 1-6, 1987.
  26. Brown, M., M.C. Roberts and G.E. Kenny. Tetracycline resistant Mycoplasma bovis isolated from dairy cows.  Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for  Microbiology. Atlanta GA. p. 122, March 1-6, 1987.
  27. Knapp, J.S, J.M. Zenilman, R.J. Rice, M.C. Roberts, S.A. McIntire, S.A. Morse. Prevalence of strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae possessing the 24.5 Mdal plasmid in the United States. Abstract International Society for S.T.D. Research 7th International Meeting. Atlanta GA. August 2-5, 1987.
  28. Kenny, G.E., T.M. Hooton, and M.C. Roberts. Sensitivities of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplamsa urealyticum to quinolones. Abstracts of the Twenty-Seventh Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 207. New York, N.Y. Oct. 4-7, 1987.
  29. Roberts, M.C., R. Sanchez-Pescador, J.T. Brown*, and M.S. Urdea. TetM, cloned and sequenced from Ureaplasma urealyticum. Abstracts of the Seventh International Congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmaology. p. 1. Baden near Vienna, Austria, June 2-9, 1988.
  30. Roberts, M.C., and J.S. Knapp. Conjugal transfer of b-lactamase plasmids from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to Neisseria meningitidis and commensal Neisseria spp. by the 25.2 Mdal TetM-containing plasmid. Sixth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, p. 100. Pine Mountain, GA. Oct. 16-21, 1988.
  31. Roberts, M.C. TetM in Neisseria gonorrhoeae and other Neisseria species. Sixth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, p. 155. Pine Mountain, GA. Oct. 16-21, 1988.
  32. Roberts, M.C., and B.J. Moncla. Tetracycline resistance and TetM in oral anaerobic bacteria. Abstracts of the Twenty-eighth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 337. Los Angeles CA. Oct. 23-26, 1988.
  33. Roberts, M.C., and G.E. Kenny. Diagnostic use of whole genomic probes for the detection of microbial infection and identification of fastidious bacteria. Washington Exhibition of Science and Technology, Seattle WA. Oct 17-18, 1988.
  34. Sorum, H., M.C. Roberts, K. Fossum, and J.H. Crosa. Identification of a large R-plasmid and cloning of a tetracycline resistance gene from the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, p. 13, New Orleans, LA. May 14-18, 1989.
  35. Roberts, M.C. Transfer of the conjugative 25.2 Mdal tetracycline resistance plasmid from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and related species to the genus Haemophilus. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 13. New Orleans, LA. May 14-18, 1989.
  36. Roberts, M.C., and J.S. Knapp. Transfer frequency of various 25.2 Mdal tetracycline-resistant plasmids in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infectious Diseases Digest 1:22-23, 1990.
  37. Roberts, M.C., and J. Lansciardi. Transfer of the tetracycline resistance determinant, Tet M. from Fusobacterium nucleatum to other strains and species. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 11. Anaheim, CA. May 13-17, 1990.
  38. Roberts, M.C., and J. Lansciardi. Characterization of the 25.2 Mda Tet M-containing plasmid and comparison to the gonococcal 24.5 Mda plasmid.  Seventh International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, p. 161. Berlin, West Germany. Sept 9-14, 1990.
  39. Roberts, M.C., B.A. Brown, V.A. Seingrube, and J. Wallace, Jr. Genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Abstracts of the Thirtieth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 225. Atlanta GA. Oct. 21-24, 1990.
  40. Sorum, H., M.C. Roberts, and J.H. Crosa. Molecular characterization of a tetracycline resistance gene from the fish pathogen Vibrio salmonicida. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, p. 9. Dallas TX. May 5-9, 1991.
  41. Facinelli, B., R. Tarsi, E. Giovanetti, P.E. Varaldo, and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of a b-lactamase-producing strain of Haemophilus haemolyticus. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 173. Dallas TX. May 5-9, 1991.
  42. Roberts, M.C., A.M. Briselden, R.B. Leonard, T.M. Hooton, and M.B. Coyle. A clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistant Streptococcus pyogenes isolated in the United States. Abstracts of the Thirty first Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 327. Chicago, IL. Sept. 29-Oct. 2, 1991.
  43. Roberts, M., and S. Jejurikar*. Restriction patterns of the 25.2 Mda plasmid changes in different hosts.  International Society for STD Research, 9th International Meeting. p. 43. Banff Alberta, Canada. Oct 6-9, 1991.
  44. Schwebke, J.R., W. Whittington, M.C. Roberts, J. Hale, K. Winterscheid, and K.K. Holmes. An outbreak of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (TRNG) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Seattle. International Society for STD Research, 9th International Meeting. p. 126. Banff Alberta, Canada. Oct 6-9, 1991.
  45. Facinelli, B., E. Giovanetti, C. Casolari, U. Fabio, P.E. Varaldo, and M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline resistance in Listeria innocua. Listeria 1992; The Eleventh International Symposium on Problems of Listeriosis. p. 221-222. Copenhagen Denmark. May 11-14, 1992.
  46. Roberts, M.C., L.A. Slaney, P.P. Plourde, J. Ombette, I. MacLean, W. Whittington, P. Odhiambo, J.O. Ndinyua-Achola, and F. Plummer. Detection of TRNG Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Kenya. Eighth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference. p. 116. Cuernavaca, Mor. Mexico Oct. 4-9, 1992.
  47. Welsh, J.*, and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of the sequences flanking the Tet M determinant in 25.2 Mda Neisseria gonorrhoeae plasmid. Eighth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference. p. 178. Cuernavaca, Mexico. Oct. 4-9, 1992.
  48. Winterscheid, K.K., W.L. Whittington, M.C. Roberts, J.R. Schwebke, and K.K. Holmes. Tet M plasmids in anogenital isolates of Neisseria meningitidis. Eighth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference. p. 104. Cuernavaca, Mexico. Oct. 4-9, 1992.
  49. Slaney L.A., A. Ronald, I. MacLean and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of tetracycline resistant Haemophilus ducreyi isolated in Kenya. Abstracts of the Thirty second Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 186. Anaheim CA. Oct. 11-14, 1992.
  50. Roberts, M.C. D.E. Roe*, P. Braham, and A. Weinberg. Characterization of tetracycline resistance in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. International Association for Dental Research, p. 204. Chicago IL. March 10-14, 1993.
  51. Weinberg, A., P. Braham, W.F. Ammons, D.E. Roe*, and M.C. Roberts. Antibiotic resistance in the oral microflora of an RPP patient. International Association for Dental Research, p. 204. Chicago IL. March 10-14, 1993.
  52. Weinberg, A., M.C. Roberts, D.E. Roe*, and P. Braham.  Antibiotic resistance in periodontal pathogens and other oral bacteria. Dental School Research Celebration Day, Seattle, WA. May 12, 1993.
  53. Berger, R., I. Rothman, D. Riley, J. Krieger, and M. Roberts. Case-control study of idiopathic prostatitis: A bacterial etiology? American Urological Association Annual Meeting. San Antonio TX. May 15-20, 1993.
  54. Roe, D.E.*, M.C. Roberts, P. Braham, and A. Weinberg. Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 21. Atlanta, GA. May 16-20, 1993.
  55. Roberts, M.C., L.V. McFarland, P. Mullany and M.E. Mulligan. Characterization the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in Clostridium difficile. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 21.  Atlanta, GA. May 16-20, 1993.
  56. Wasteson**, Y., M.C. Roberts, and K. Falk. Characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in Norwegian Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, p. 21. Atlanta, GA. May 16-20, 1993.
  57. Xia, M.*, M.C. Roberts, W.L. Whittington, K.K. Holmes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genomic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. International Society for STD Research, 10th International Meeting. p. 228. Helsinki, Finland Aug 29-Sept. 1, 1993.
  58. Roberts, M.C., D.E. Roe*, P. Braham, and A. Weinberg. Mechanisms of resistance in the oral microflora of periodontitis patients. Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Resistance. p. 38. Albany NY. Sept 9-12, 1993.
  59. Pang, Y*, R.J. Wallace Jr., B.A. Brown, V.A. Steingrube, N. Douma, and M.C. Roberts. Mechanism of tetracycline resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum group and Streptomyces species. Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Resistance. p. 34. Albany NY. Sept 9-12, 1993.
  60. Whittington, W.L., J. Hale, M.C. Roberts, K.K. Holmes. Susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the glycylcyclines. Abstracts of the Thirty-third Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 199. New Orleans, LA. Oct. 17-20, 1993. 
  61. Leng, Z.* and M.C. Roberts. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for genomic analysis of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. International Association for Dental Research, p. 249. Seattle, WA. March 10-13, 1994.
  62. Roe, D.E.*, A. Weinberg, Y. Pang*, and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. International Association for Dental Research, p. 153. Seattle, WA. March 10-13, 1994.
  63. Roe, D.E.*, A. Weinberg, Y. Pang, and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Dental School Research Celebration Day, Seattle, WA. April 26, 1994.
  64. Pang Y.*, B. Brown, V. Steingrube, R. Wallace Jr., and M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. avium. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 195. Las Vegas, NV. May 23-27, 1994.
  65. DePaola, A, N. Douma, and M.C. Roberts. Unusual tetracycline resistance determinants in gram-negative catfish ponds.  Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 432. Las Vegas, NV. May 23-27, 1994.
  66. Facinelli B., M.C. Roberts, F. Giovanetti, C. Casolari, and P.E. Varaldo. Transferable erythromycin resistance in food isolates of Listeria. Abstracts of the 7th International Congress of Bacteriology and Applied Microbiology Division, p. 304. Praga, Czech Republic. July 3-8, 1994.
  67. Roe D.E.*, A. Weinberg and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of erythromycin resistance in Campylobacter (Wolinella) rectus. Anaerobe Society of the Americas Congress on Anaerobic Bacteria and Anaerobic Infection, p. 72. Marina del Rey, CA. July 29-31, 1994.
  68. Roberts, M.C. Distribution of tetracycline and macrolides-lincosamides-streptogramin B (MLS) genes in anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobe Society of the Americas Congress on Anaerobic Bacteria and Anaerobic Infection, p. 48. Marina del Rey, CA. July 29-31, 1994.
  69. Roberts, M.C., Y. Pang*, and M. Xia*. A PCR assay for differentiating two groups of 25.2 Mda Tet M Neisseria plasmids. Neisseria 94, p. 335-336. Winchester, England. Sept. 26-30, 1994.
  70. Xia, M.*, W.L. Whittington, J.S. Knapp, K.K. Holmes, M.C. Roberts. Epidemiologic analysis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Neisseria 94, p. 411-412. Winchester, England. Sept. 26-30, 1994.
  71. Roe, D. E.*, A. Weinberg, and M.C. Roberts. Antibiotic resistance determinants in Campylobacter (Wolinella) rectus. American Association for Dental Research, p. 198. San Antonio. TX. March 8-12, 1995.
  72. J. Hesselbarth, C. Werckenthin, B. Liebisch, S. Schwarz and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of Staphylococcus intermedius strains from different animal sources by ribotyping and typing for insertion elements. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 274. Washington D.C., May, 21-25, 1995.
  73. Marquez, C., M. Roberts, G. Borthagaray, M. Xia*, C. Alen, C., A. Acevedo, and M. Castro. Deteccion del determinante de resistaencia Tet M en cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae aisladas en Uruguay. Libro de Resumeneds de Trabajos Cientificos del VII Congreso Panamericano de Infectiologia, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. p. 130. Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, May 28-31, 1995.
  74. Pang, Y.*, B.A. Brown, V.A. Steingrube, R.J. Wallace Jr. and M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline resistance determinants in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium intracellulare/avium and Nocardia spp. Abstracts of the Thirty-fifth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 56. San Francisco, CA. Sept. 17-20, 1995.
  75. Roe, D.E.*, A. Weinberg, R. J. Wallace Jr. and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in gram-negative oral flora. Abstracts of the Thirty-fifth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 64. San Francisco, CA. Sept. 17-20, 1995.
  76. Kilmarx, P.H., J.S. Knapp, M.E. St. Louis, M. Xia*, S.W. Neal, D. Sayers, L.J. Doyle, M.C. Roberts, and W. L. Whittington. Emergence and persistence of gonococci with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility, Ohio. Abstracts of the Thirty-fifth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 96. San Francisco, CA. Sept. 17-20, 1995.
  77. Whittington, W.L., M. Xia*, T. Wolfe, J. Hale, J.S. Knapp, K.K. Holmes, M.C. Roberts, and H.H. Handsfield.  sustained transmission of a discrete strain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Abstracts of the Thirty fifth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Late Breaking Session Late Breaking Session Program Addendum p 11. San Francisco, CA. Sept. 17-20, 1995.
  78. Roe, D.E.*, A. Weinberg, R.J. Wallace Jr. and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of antibiotic resistance genes in gram-negative oral flora. University of Washington School of Dentistry Research Day Sept. 27, 1995.
  79. Werckenthin, C., S. Schwarz, and M.C Roberts.  Tetracyclin resistenz bei potentiell pathogenen Staphylokokken animaler Herkunft. Immun. Infekt. 23 Suppl 1. p 121.  Abstracts 47 Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Hygiene und Mikrobiolgie, Wurzburg Germany, 3-7 Oct. 1995.
  80. Gherardini, F., C. Hudson, D. Roe*, and M. Roberts. Identification of an erythromycin resistance gene from Borrelia burgdorferi. # 23. Biology of Spirochetes Gordon Conference, Evolution and Genetics of Spirochetes, Ventura, CA., Jan. 21-26, 1996.
  81. Chung, W. O.*, D. E. Roe*, A. Weinberg, and M.C Roberts. Tet B and Erm F antibiotic determinants in Treponema denticola. p 319, Abstracts from the 74th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, San Francisco, CA. March 13-17, 1996.
  82. Doran, J.L., A.J. Moran, Y. Pang*, T.C. Victor, K.B. Mdluli, R.W. Stokes, E. Mahenthiralingam, J.L. Butt, J.d. Treit, P.D. van Helden, M.C. Roberts and F.E. Nano. Mycobacterium tuberculosis efpA encoding a putative, efflux protein of the gacA, drug resistance transporter family.  Abstract to the University of Alberta Conference on Infectious Diseases Kananaskis, Alberta Canada May 6-7, 1996.
  83. Doran, J.L., A.J. Moran, Y. Pang*, T.C. Victor, K.B. Mdluli, R.W. Stokes, E. Mahenthiralingam, J.L. Butt, J.d. Treit, P.D. van Helden, M.C. Roberts and F.E. Nano. Mycobacterium tuberculosis efpA encoding a putative, efflux protein of the gacA, drug resistance transporter family.  Abstract to the Annual General Meeting of the Canadian bacterial Diseases Network, Kananaskis, Alberta Canada May 8-10, 1996.
  84. Hudson, C.R. ***, D.E. Roe*, M.C. Roberts and F.C. Gherardini. Identification of an erythromycin resistance gene from Borrelia burgdorferi.  Abstracts of the 96th Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 248. New Orleans, LA. May 19-23, 1996.
  85. Rudolph-Pfau, K.*, A.J. Parkinson, and M.C Roberts.  Molecular analysis of multiply antimicrobial resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from Alaska.  Tenth International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Anchorage, AK. May 19-24, 1996.
  86. Schwarz, S., M.C Roberts, C. Werckenthin, G. Lodder, J. Hohn, C. Lange, Y. Pang*, L. Y. Chan+.  Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in different staphylococcal species from various animal sources.  8th International Symposium on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infectious.  Aix-les-Bains, France, June 23-26, 1996.
  87. Chung., W.O.*, D.E. Roe*, and M.C. Roberts.  Tet B and Erm f antibiotic determinants in Treponema denticola.  Impact of bacterial antibiotic resistance on oral health: what is the relevance? Seattle, WA. Sept 5-7, 1996.
  88. Gabany, J.*, Z. Leng*, B. Schlegel, R. Persson and M.C. Roberts.  Distribution of the Tet Q determinant among oral Gram-negative anaerobes.  Impact of bacterial antibiotic resistance on oral health: what is the relevance? Seattle, WA. Sept 5-7, 1996.
  89. Roe, D.E.* and M.C. Roberts.  Characterization of antibiotic resistance in commensal Neisseria species.  Impact of bacterial antibiotic resistance on oral health: what is the relevance? Seattle, WA. Sept 5-7, 1996.
  90. Roberts, M.C. Antibiotic resistance: Are we reaching the post-antibiotic era?"  163rd National Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, p A-53. Seattle WA. Feb. 13-18, 1997.
  91. Riley, E., M.C. Roberts, R.E. Berger and J.N. Krieger. Prokaryotic DNA sequences in chronic prostatitis. Abstracts of the 1997 Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association, Inc.  New Orleans LA. 1997.
  92. Marquez, C.M. ***, G, Borthagaray and M.C. Roberts.  A PPNG/TRNG Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate able to transfer the 3.05 Mda plasmid.  Abstracts of the 97th Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p.62. Miami Beach, FL. May 4-8, 1997.
  93. Chung W.O.*, C. Werckenthin, S. Schwarz and M.C. Roberts.  Host range of the ermF rRNA methylase gene in human and animal bacteria.  Abstracts of the Thirty-seventh Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 70 Toronto, Canada, Sept. 27-Oct 1, 1997.
  94. Rudolph-Pfau, K.M.*, A.J. Parkinson and M.C. Roberts.  Analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B isolates from selected areas within the United States by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Abstracts of the Thirty seventh Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, p. 54. Toronto, Canada, Sept. 27-Oct 1, 1997.
  95. Hudson, C.R. ***, M.C. Roberts and F.C. Gherardini.  Evidence of conjugal transfer of an erythromycin resistance determinant in Borrelia burgdorferi.  Biology of Spirochetes Gordon Conference, Evolution and Genetics of Spirochetes, Ventura, CA., Jan. 18-23, 1998.
  96. Luna, V.A.*, D.B. Jernigan, A. Tice and M.C. Roberts.  The identification of a multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clone in Washington.  Eighth International Congress on Infectious Diseases. p. 61. Boston, MA May 15-18, 1998.
  97. Chung, W.O.*, K. Young, Z. Leng* and M.C. Roberts.  Linkage between ermF and tetQ antibiotic genes in a variety of bacteria.  Eighth International Congress on Infectious Diseases. p. 126. Boston, MA, May 15-18, 1998.
  98. Hudson, C.R. ***, M.C. Roberts and F.C. Gherardini.  Evidence of conjugal transfer of an erythromycin-resistance determinant in Borrelia burgdorferi. #D-62 p. 223. Abstracts of the 98th Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, Atlanta GA. May 17-21, 1998.
  99. Rudolph, K.R.*, M.J. Crain, M.C. Roberts and A.J. Parkinson.  Characterization of a multi-drug resistant clone of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Alaska using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and PspA serotyping.  The first International Symposium on pneumococci and pneumococcal diseases.  Elsinore, Denmark, June 13-17, 1998.
  100. Chung, W.O.*, K. Young, Z. Leng* and M.C. Roberts.  Cotransfer of ermF and tetQ antibiotics in oral bacteria.  Abstracts from the 76th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, Nice, France. June 24-27, 1998.
  101. Luna, V.A.*, P. Coates, J.H. Cove and M.C. Roberts.  Transfer of the mefE gene from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus, and Corynebacterium jeikeium to other Gram-positive bacteria. Abstracts of the Thirty eight Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, C-34 p. 78. San Diego, CA, Sept. 24-27, 1998.
  102. Chung, W.O.* and M.C. Roberts.  PFGE analysis of oral pathogens carrying ermF or tetQ antibiotic genes or both.  Abstracts of the Thirty-eight Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, D-89 p. 154. San Diego, CA, Sept. 24-27, 1998.
  103. Andres, M.T., W.O Chung*, M.C. Roberts and J.F. Fierro.  Susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents in oral isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens isolated in Spain. p. 488. FDI World Dental Congress, Bacelona, Spain Oct 8-12, 1998.
  104. Luna, V.A.** , and M.C. Roberts. MICs of Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced penicillin susceptibility to oral antibiotics in Washington State.  Abstracts of the Thirty-sixth Annual Meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Denver CO, Nov 12-15, 1998.
  105. Luna, V.A.** , and M.C. Roberts. MICs of Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced penicillin susceptibility to oral antibiotics in Washington State. 6th International Symposium on New Quinolones and Related Antibioitics.  #29 Denver CO, Nov 15-17, 1998.
  106. Werckenthin, C., Y. Pang*, M.C. Roberts, and S. Schwarz. Tetracycline resistance genes of the same hybridization classes in staphylococci from humans and animals.  Abstracts of the 99th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, p. 12 no. A-59. Chicago, IL, May 30-June 3, 1999.
  107. Luna, V.A.* , and M.C. Roberts. Mobile Streptococcus pneumoniae mef (macrolide efflux) gene transferred by conjugation into oral Gram-negative opportunistic bacteria. Abstracts of the Thirty Ninth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, LB-09 p. San Francisco, CA, Sept. 26-29, 1999.
  108. Roberts, M.C. and J. Sutcliffe.  Proposal for macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance determinants.  Abstracts from the Fifth International Conference on the Macrolides, Azalides, Streptogramins, Ketolides and Oxazolidinones. p 24 2.13, Seville, Spain, Jan. 26-28, 2000.
  109. Rudolph, K.M.*, A.J. Parkinson, and M.C. Roberts. Genetic mechanisms of erythromycin and trimethoprim resistance in the Alaska Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B clone. Second International Streptococcus pneumoniae, Sun City South Africa, March 20-24, 2000.
  110. Roberts, M.C., K. Judge, and K. Young. Development of Gram-positive probes for the detection of mercury resistance in oral bacteria. Abstracts of 78th General Session of the IADR, p 621, #3819, Washington DC, April 5-8, 2000.
  111. Luna V. A. **, H. S. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Distribution of macrolide resistance genes in Gram-positive bacteria from normal children in Lisbon Portugal-Extension of their host range.  L-11,1st International Symposium: Resistant Gram-positive Infections, San Antonio TX, Dec 3-5, 2000.
  112. Luna V.A.**, H.S. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts.  Gram-positive macrolide and mercury genes transfer together in bacteria.  Abstracts of 30th General Session of the AADR, p 217, #1453, Chicago, IL, March 7-10, 2001.
  113. Roberts, M.C., C.A. Reidy**, S.E. Coldwell, K. Judge, P. Milgrom. Genetic relationship between S. mutans isolates before and after xylitol exposure. Abstracts of 30th General Session of the AADR, p 217, #1452, Chicago, IL, March 7-10, 2001.
  114. Call, D.R. and M.C. Roberts. Discriminating between tetracycline resistance genes using DNA microarrays.  Michigan Food Pathogen Conference. May 14-15, 2001.
  115. Luna V.A.**, H.S. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Mercury resistant gram-positive bacteria identified by genotypic and phenotypic methods. Abstracts of the 101 Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p. 64, no. Q-91. Orlando, FL, May 20-24, 2001.
  116. Miranda, C.D. and M.C. Roberts. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes from Chilean salmon. Abstracts of the Forty-first Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. 2241, Chicago IL, Dec. 16-19, 2001.
  117. Starr, J.R.***, T. C. White, H.S. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. A three-year longitudinal study of Candida albicans carriage among healthy Portuguese school children. Abstracts of 80th General Session of the IADR, p. A-285, no 2232, San Diego, CA, March 6-9, 2002.
  118. Fredericks, L.P.**,  G. Darmstadt, J. Dinulos, M.C. Roberts, and B.A. Dale. Commensal and pathogenic bacteria exhibit differences in induction and susceptibility to b-defensins in keratinocytes.  Dermatology Meeting, San Diego, CA, May 23-26, 2002.
  119. Roberts, M.C. Acquired tetracycline and/or macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin resistance in anaerobic species.   Anaerobe Olympiad 2002, Park City UT, June 29-July 2, 2002.
  120. Cousin, S. L, Jr.*, C. Ulep, W.L. Whittingtion, and M.C. Roberts.  Acquired macrolide resistance, mef(A) and erm genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated between 1975-1987. 13th International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference, p. 343. Oslo Norway Sept. 1-6, 2002.
  121. Kehrenberg, C., C. Miranda, M.C. Roberts, and S. Schwarz. Occurrence of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(H) in Acinetobacter and Moraxella. Forty-second Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C1-1604, p 74, San Diego CA, Sept 27-30, 2002.
  122. Roberts, M.C., K. Judge, C. Ulep, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, and J. Leitao. Acquired macrolide resistance, mef(A) and erm(B) genes, in gram-negative bacteria isolated from healthy Portuguese children. Forty-second Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C2-1992, p 124. San Diego CA, Sept 27-30, 2002.
  123. Cousin, S.L., Jr.*, S. Morrow, G. Wu, V. Herrera, M. McIhaney, G. Hong, and M.C. Roberts. Molecular based surveillance studies of antibiotic resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae using denaturing high performance liquid chromatograph (DHPLC) based WAVE System. Abstracts of the 103 Annual Meeting of American Society for Microbiology, p.24 , no. A-127. Washington, D.C., May 18-22, 2003.
  124. Bakko M.K.***, M.J. Krug, M.C. Roberts, and D.R. Call. Identification of antibioitc resistance genes using DNA Microarrays. Abstracts of the 103 Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, p.24 , no. A-125. Washington, D.C., May 18-22, 2003.
  125. Mathiea, K.K.*,  M.C. Roberts, N.J. Wells, B.A. Dale. Salivary mutans streptococcus and caries incidence in middle school children in rural Washington State. Abstracts of the American Dental Hygiene Association. June New York City, NY, June 2003.
  126. Cousin, S.L, Jr.*, W.L. Whittingtion, and M.C. Roberts. Insertion of a thymine (+T) in the 13 base pair inverted repeat of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae mtr promoter region and its relation to antimicrobial susceptibilities.  Abstracts of the 2003 International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research Congress. p 160 #0450. Ottawa, Canada, July 27-30, 2003.
  127. Ojo, K.K.** , M.C. Roberts, C. Ulep, N. Van Kirk, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao.  Macrolide esterases, phosphorylases, efflux pump and rRNA methylases in Gram-negative commensal bacteria. Abstracts of the Forty-third Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C2-90, p Chicago, IL, Sept 14-17, 2003.
  128. Ojo, K.K.**, M.C. Roberts, C. Ulep, N. Van Kirk, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao. Macrolide esterases, phosphorylases, efflux pump and rRNA methylases in Gram-negative commensal bacteria.  Abstracts of the Forty-third Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C2-90, p Chicago, Il, Sept 14-17, 2003.
  129. Tung, D.+, K.K. Ojo**,  H.S. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Gram-positive mercury resistance genes in Gram-negative oral bacteria.  Abstracts of the 82nd General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, Honolulu, March 10-13, 2004.
  130. Mathieu, K.K. *, M.C. Roberts, N. J. Wells, and B. A. Dale. Salivary Streptococcus mutans and caries incidence in middle school children in rural Washington State. Abstracts of the 82nd General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, Honolulu, March 10-13, 2004.
  131. Kimball, J. R., K.K. Mathieu*, M.C. Roberts, N. J. Wells, and B. A. Dale. Salivary analysis for antimicrobial alpha-defensins and Streptococcus mutans in children. Abstracts of the 82nd General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, #3613, Honolulu, March 10-13, 2004.
  132. Roberts, M.C., M. Rothen, G. Mueller, I-Y. Chiu and P. Milgrom. Relationship of plaque and salivary S. mutans concentrations in adults. Abstracts of the 82nd General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, #210, Honolulu, March 10-13, 2004.
  133. Roberts, M.C., M. Rothen, G. Mueller, I-Y. Chiu and P. Milgrom. Reliability of S. mutans counts on modified MSKB agar. Abstracts of the 82nd General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, #3453, Honolulu, March 10-13, 2004.
  134. Ojo, K.K.**, D. Tung+ , H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Gram-positive mercury resistance genes in Gram-negative commensal bacteria are associated with conjugative elements. Abstracts of the 104th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, New Orleans, May 23-27, 2004.
  135. Soge, O.*, D. Melka, S. Serfling, R. Reimschussel and M.C. Roberts. Tetracycline resistant gene carriage in bacteria isolated from environments associated with aquaculture. Abstracts of the 104th  Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, New Orleans, May 23-27, 2004.  Press release provided by ASM.
  136. Hawkins V.N. *, K.K. Ojo**, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Gram-positive macrolide efflux genes [mef(A) and msr(D)] in Fusobacterium nucleatum isolates. 2004 Anaerobe, Anaerobic Society of the Americas, Annapolis MD, July 18-21, 2004.
  137. Ojo, K.K.**,  H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Gram-positive elements carrying the macrolide resistance efflux mef(A) and msr(D) genes in Gram-negative commensal bacteria. Abstracts of the Forty-fourth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C2-1891.  p. 126 . Washington, D.C. Oct 30-Nov. 2, 2004.
  138. Blanco, M.***, C.B. Gutierrez, E.F.R. Ferri, M. Roberts, and J. Navas. Tetracycline resistance plasmids in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Plasmid Biology 2004: International Symposium on molecular biology of bacterial plasmids and other mobile genetic elements. Sept 15-21, 2004, Kanoni, Corfu, Greece. Plasmid 53; 79-80, 2005.
  139. Ly, K.**, M. Roberts, M. Rothen, G. Mueller, and P. Milgrom. Streptococcus mutans response to increasing xylitol doses: A clinical trial. Abstracts of the 83rd General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, #3283, Baltimore MD, March 9-12, 2005.
  140. Striplin, M., K.K. Ojo,  C. Casas, J. Zittle, C. Ulep, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Identification of the staphylococcal macrolide efflux msr(A) gene in new bacteria. Eighth Annual Undergraduate University of Washington Symposium.  p. 28. May 13, 2005.
  141. Chapin, A.R.***, K.K. Ojo**, M.C. Roberts, and K.J. Schwab. Prevalence of macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin and tetracycline resistance genes among airborne Gram-positive bacteria recovered from a concentrated swine feeding operation. Abstracts of the 105th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no A-039, p. 9, Atlanta GA, June 5-9, 2005.
  142. Ojo, KK.**, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Oral Acinetobacter junii and Fusobacterium nucleatum isolates carry a Gram-positive Tn2009 transposon. Abstracts of the 105th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no A-049, p.11. Atlanta GA, June 5-9, 2005.
  143. Soge, O.O.*, A.M. Queenan, K.K. Ojo**, E. Wira, H.A. Odelola, and M.C. Roberts. Cefotaximase (CTX-M) enzymes from clinical Nigerian Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.  Abstracts of the 105th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no A-018, p. 4.  Atlanta GA, June 5-9, 2005.   
  144. Swarts, S.+, K. K. Ojo**, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts.  Identification of MLS resistance genes in Fusobacterium nucleatum and Enterococcus faecalis transconjugants. Abstracts of the Seattle WA, 2006 Northwest Branch ASM Meeting March 10-12, 2006.
  145. Ojo, K.K.**, S. Pottumarthy, S. Swanzy, N.L. Ruehlen, A.M. Buccat,  J.L. Prentice, B.T. Cookson, and M.C. Roberts. Acquisition of erm(B) and mef(A) genes can lead to high-level macrolide resistant H. influenzae from a cystic fibrosis patient.  Abstracts of the Seattle WA, 2006 Northwest Branch ASM Meeting March 10-12, 2006.
  146. Soge, O.O.*, K.K. Ojo**, J. M. Robinet+, B.A. Adeniyi and M.C. Roberts. Characterization of CTX-M plasmid in uropathogenic Nigerian Klebsiella pneumoniae. Abstracts of the Seattle WA, 2006 Northwest Branch ASM Meeting March 10-12, 2006.
  147. Ojo, K.K.**, C. Wade, N.M. Fong, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, J. Leitao, and M.C. Roberts. Mercury associated genes in mercury resistant merA positive Gram-negative bacteria.  Abstracts of the 106th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, H-128, Orlando Fl. May 21-25, 2006.
  148. Soge, O.O. *, N. K. Beck, K.K. Ojo**, and M.C. Roberts.  Prevalence of ribosomal protection tetracycline resistance genes and macrolide efflux genes in uropathogenic Nigerian Klebsiella pneumoniae. Abstracts of the 106th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no A-038, Orlando Fl. May 21-25, 2006.
  149. Starke, E.M., J.C. Smoot, L. Smoot, M. Konneke, A. Moore, D. A. Stahl, B. Chernov, M. Schipma, A. Perov, J. Golova, D. Chandler, A. Kukhtin, C. Daitch, M.C. Roberts, M. Rothen, K. Ly, P. Milgrom. Detection of Streptococcus mutans in Saliva Using Gel-Drop Microarray Technology. Abstracts of the 106th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no Q-254, Orlando Fl. May 21-25, 2006.
  150. Blanco, M.***, I. Andrés , C.B. Gutiérrez, E.F. Rodríguez , M.C. Roberts and J. Navas.  Resistance to tetracyclines in swine pathogens of the Pasteurellaceae family. Second FEMS Congress of European Microbiologists, July 4-8, 2006.
  151. Tivoli, L*, N. K. Beck, J.S. Meschke, and M.C. Roberts.  Clostridium perfringes: A reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. The 8th Biennial Congress of the Anaerobe Society of  the Americas, no PII-11, p108. Boise ID, July 25-28, 2006.
  152. Roberts, M.C., N. Beck, T. White, K.K. Ojo**, D. No, S. Swanzy, N.L. Ruehlen, A.M. Buccat, J.L.              Prentice, D and B.T. Cookson. Acquired macrolide resistance genes in high-level macrolide resistant   H. influenzae isolates from a cystic fibrosis patient. Annual Abstracts of the Forty-sixth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C2-1339, p131.  San Francisco CA, Sept.  26-30, 2006.
  153. Roberts, M.C., B. Leroux, J. Sampson, J. Starr, H. Luis, M. Bernardo, and J. Leitao. Dental amalgam on antibiotic/mercury-resistant bacteria: Results of a randomized trial. Abstracts of the 85th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, no. 1136. New Orleans, LA, March 22-24, 2007.
  154. Milgrom, P., C.A. Riedy, K.A. Ly, M., Rothen, G. Mueller, M.K. Hagstrom, E. Tolentino, L. Zhour, and M.C. Roberts.  Bioavailability of xylitol-containing products in saliva. Abstracts of the 85th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research, Late Breaking Session. New Orleans, LA, March 22-24, 2007.
  155. Tivoli, L.*, N.K. Beck. J.S. Meschke, and M.C. Roberts. A reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment? Abstracts of the 107th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no. A-048, Toronto, Canada, May 21-25, 2007.
  156. Starke, E.M.L. ***, A. Moore, L.M. Smoot, M.C. Roberts, K. Ly, M. Rothen, P. Milgrom, and D.A. Stahl. Analyses of microbial populations of saliva found in health volunteers using 16S rRNA gene sequences.  Abstracts of the 107th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no. N-111, Toronto, Canada, May 21-25, 2007.
  157. Pearson, A.L.***, V. Long+, J.S. Meschke, M.C. Roberts, and J.D. Mayer. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from rural Ugandan drinking water sources using Ec3MTMpetriflims. Abstracts of the 107th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no. Q-521, Toronto, Canada, May 21-25, 2007.
  158. Kenny, G.K., P.A. Young, M.C. Roberts, L.A. Manhart and P.A. Totten. An improved medium for growth of Mycoplasma genitalium: Isolation of a tetracycline-resistant clinical strain. Abstracts 17th Biennial Meeting of the International Society Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research, Poster Session II. Seattle WA. July 29- Aug., 1, 2007.
  159. Soge, O.O. **, C. Ivanova +, M. Giardino, A.L. Pearson***, J.S. Meschke, and M.C. Roberts. Low rates of antibiotic resistance gene carriage in environmental bacteria isolated from remote southwestern Ugandan water sources.  Abstracts of the 108th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, no. A-115, June 1-5, 2008. Press release provided by ASM.
  160. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge, M.A. Giardino+, E. Mazengia***, G. Ma, and J. S. Meschke. Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis in USA recreational marine waters. Abstracts of the Forty-eighth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy and the 46th Infections Diseases Society of America, no. C2-272.  Washington D.C. Oct. 25-28, 2008. Press release provided by ASM and posted on Bloomberg.com wire service.
  161. Soge, O.O. **, J. S. Meschke, and M.C. Roberts.  Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (MRCoNS) from west coast public marine parks.  Abstracts of the Forty-ninth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C2-146. San Francisco, CA Sept. 12-15, 2009.  Live Press Conference provided by ASM.
  162. Clarridge, J., A. Harrington, M.C. Roberts and K. Maquelin. The impact of strain typing method on assessing the relationship of paired nares and wound isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Abstracts of the 20th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. No. 1314. Vienna, Austria April 10-13, 2010.
  163. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge**, D. No, and J. S. Meschke.  Isolation and molecular characterization of MRSA isolated from fire/medic trucks and fire station living quarters.  Abstracts of the 110th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, San Diego CA May 23-27, 2010.
  164. Roberts, M.C., O.O. Soge**, J. S. Meschke, D. No, and S.E. Helgeson.  Characterization of multi-drug resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from non-hospital public surfaces. Abstracts of the Fiftieth Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, no. C2-1293. Boston, MA, Sept 12-15, 2010.
  165. Stiffarm, A.+, E.A. Levin*, and M.C. Roberts. Prevalence and distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on three Seattle-Metro beaches. Abstracts of 2010 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS), Charlotte, N. Carolina, Nov. 10-13, 2010. Best Poster at the meeting.
  166. Bonilla N.+, E.A. Levin*, and M.C. Roberts. Survival of clinical and environmental strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in marine waters. Abstracts of 2010 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS), Charlotte, N. Carolina, Nov. 10-13, 2010.
  167. Levin Edens, E.A*, J.L. Kocian***, L. Su-Miao, M.C. Roberts, J.C. Kissel and J. S. Meschke.  Estimated risk to children of MRSA colonization form inter-tidal each sand. Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of Society for Risk Analysis, Salt Lake City, UT Dec 5-8, 2010.
  168. Roberts, M.C., E. Levin-Edens*, A. Stiffarm+, D. No, O. O. Soge, and J. S. Meschke.  Are fresh water streams potential reservoirs for opportunistic S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] at marine recreational beaches? Abstracts of the EPA National Beach Conference, Miami Fl., March 15-17, 2011.
  169. Bonilla, N.+, J. Riversa+, J.M. Carrasquillo+, M.C. Roberts, G.A. Toranzos.  Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in tropical marine, fresh and sewage waters. Abstracts of the EPA National Beach Conference, Miami Fl., March 15-17, 2011.
  170. Levin- Edens, EA*, N. Bonilla+, J.S. Meschke, and M.C. Roberts.  Survival of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] in Pacific Northwest marine and fresh water. Abstracts of the 111th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, New Orleans, May 21-24, 2011.
  171. Meschke, J.M., J. Minick+, N.K. Beck, E. Levin-Edens*, D. No, and M.C. Roberts. An evaluation of the presence and source of fecal contamination at an urban park beach.  no. 906, p. 116. Abstracts of the 111th Annual Meeting of American Society of Microbiology, New Orleans, May 21-24, 2011.
  172. Bonilla N. +, J. Rivera+, J.M. Carrasquillo+, C. Vega+, M. Coradin, M.C. Roberts and G.A. Toranzos. Survey methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Puerto Rico’s tropical marine, fresh and sewage waters. The 16th International Symposium on Health-Related Water Microbiology (HRMW), Rotura, New Zealand, Sept 18-23, 2011.
Review date: 
4/19/2012