OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE - UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON SPRING
- SUMMER, 2001
spring, the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) released the long-awaited National Report on Human Exposure
to Environmental Chemicals, which measured the exposure of the
US population to 27 environmental chemicals.
of Environmental Health researchers have long experience with
biomonitoring and chemical exposures, health effects, and the
complex interaction of genetics and environmental exposure. This
issue of Environmental Health News describes our work with several
of these substances: lead, beryllium, mercury, phthalates, and
years of living, breathing, eating, and drinking, we all acquire
a body burden of chemicals. The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) has issued a report that, for the first time
in a general US population sample, uses biomonitoring in a comprehensive
way to measure actual levels of chemicals in the body. Biomonitoring
is the analysis of blood, urine, and tissues to measure chemical
exposure in humans. Previous studies had estimated population
exposures from air, water, or soil samples.
The report measured the exposure of the US population to 27 environmental
chemicals, including metals such as lead and mercury; phthalates
(plasticizers); pesticides; and tobacco smoke. Levels of environmental
chemicals were measured in blood and urine samples collected from
participants in CDCs National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey (NHANES), a long-term national health survey of the US
population. This is the first time that national exposure levels
were calculated for 24 of these 27 chemicals.
contained some good news about childhood lead levels and the exposure
of nonsmokers to secondhand cigarette smoke. Other measures gave
cause for concern.
CDC described its first National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental
Chemicals as an important research tool. This new resource
is a significant development in the field of environmental health,
said Health and Human Services Secretary Tommy G. Thompson. It
will help us to better track the exposures of Americans to chemicals
in the environment and to measure the effectiveness of our public
health efforts. The CDC notes that just because people have
an environmental chemical in their blood or urine does not mean
that the chemical causes disease. Researchers at the University
of Washington and other governmental and educational institutions
are working to determine which levels of a chemical may cause
disease and which levels are of negligible health concern. For
some chemicals, such as lead, much is known about the health risks
at various blood levels. For most of the other environmental chemicals,
more research is needed to determine whether exposure to the chemical
at levels found in the study is a cause for health concern.
Biomonitoring can identify previously unknown pollution sources,
said Dave Kalman, chair of the Department of Environmental Health.
For example, until an earlier phase of the NHANES study found
high blood lead levels among urban, lower-income children, nobody
was looking for lead paint in older public housing projects. This
was an exposure that wasnt anticipated, he said.
plans to expand the report to provide information about 100 chemicals
in the next few years, while continuing to monitor the 27 original
substances. In the future, CDC expects to be able to report exposure
levels for specific population groups, such as children, minority
populations, or women of childbearing age.
mercury, cadmium, cobalt, antimony, barium, beryllium,
cesium, molybdenum, platinum, thallium, tungsten, and uranium
CDC has monitored childrens blood lead levels since 1976.
Results for 1999 show that average lead levels for children aged
1-5 years have decreased since 19911994. These findings
highlight the success of public health efforts to decrease the
exposure of children to lead and remove lead from automobile gasoline.
Nevertheless, special populations of children at high risk for
lead exposure, such as those living in homes containing lead-based
paint or lead-contaminated dust, remain a public health concern.
report provides new data on levels of mercury in blood of children
1 to 5 years old and among women of childbearing age (16-49 years
old). Blood mercury levels among children were about 25% of the
average of blood mercury levels among women of childbearing age.
Compared with an adult, the fetus and child are usually more vulnerable
to the effects of metals, and public health officials are particularly
careful to protect them. Scientists will use these new data to
better estimate health risks for the fetus, children, and women
of childbearing age from potential sources of mercury exposure.
is a metabolite of nicotine that tracks exposure to environmental
tobacco smoke among nonsmokers. Environmental, or second-hand,
smoke has been identified as a human carcinogen. Results from
the 1999 report showed that the median (50th percentile) cotinine
level among nonsmokers aged 3 years and older has decreased more
than 75% from levels measured between 1988 and 1991. This reduction
documents a dramatic reduction in exposure of the general US population
to environmental tobacco smoke; however, since more than half
of American youth are still exposed, environmental tobacco smoke
remains a major public health concern.
insecticides have largely replaced the more persistent pesticides
such as DDT. Some of the more widely used have been chlorpyrifos,
diazinon, and malathion. Whether the urine levels of metabolites
reported in the CDC study are a cause for health concern is not
yet known. The CDC's data provide physicians with a reference
range against which to compare a patient's exposure. These data
will also assist scientists in planning and conducting research
about organophosphate pesticide exposure and health effects.
are compounds commonly used in such consumer products as soap,
shampoo, hair spray, and many types of nail polish. Some phthalates
are used in plastic medical devices such as blood bags and tubing.
Animal research has focused on the reproductive effects of phthalates.
The CDC study found widespread and unexpectedly high levels of
metabolites from two phthalate compounds associated with consumer
products. These new data have prompted CDC to conduct additional
studies to examine the pathways by which phthalates get into people's
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry ToxFAQs, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaq.html
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm
of Environmental Health investigators for decades have researched
the human health effects of several of the target chemicals and
have pioneered biomonitoring techniques. "The department's
strong toxicology research components allow us to look beyond
the exposures to the human significance," department chair
Dave Kalman said.
For the past century, children were
exposed to lead by breathing automobile exhaust and eating chipped
paint. Even low-level lead exposure can affect childrens
neurological development, resulting in lowered IQ and attention
deficit disorder. A number of departmental research teams have
looked into various aspects of leads effects.
student Hailing Lu in Lucio Costas laboratory studied how
lead affects signal transduction pathways in the brain. Lynne
Simmonds, in James Woods laboratory, searched for biomarkers
of low-level lead exposure that could serve as a non-invasive
means of testing for lead exposure. In the end, she concluded
that direct blood lead measurement remains the best test.
occupational exposures to lead can also affect their children.
A team that included Harvey Checkoway, Joel Kaufman, and Elaine
Faustman has studied the reproductive effects of lead exposure
in smelter workers. They found that the risk of a stillbirth or
birth defect was elevated for pre-conception employment in a high-lead-exposure
job compared with a low-lead-exposure job.
Takaro is investigating worker risk from beryllium at the Hanford
Nuclear Reservation in eastern Washington. Beryllium is a strong,
lightweight metallic element used not only in weaponry, but also
in the aerospace industry and in consumer goods ranging from golf
clubs to bicycle frames.
vast majority of people who are exposed to beryllium do not become
sensitized. However, some peoples lungs mount a strong immune
reaction to beryllium particles. One known genetic biomarker,
Glu-69, has shown a high correlation with incidence of chronic
beryllium disease development. Departmental researchers are working
to identify other genetic factors involved in the disease.
Professor Thomas Burbacher served on the National Academy of Sciences
committee that last year reaffirmed the Environmental Protection
Agencys standards for methyl-mercury exposure. He has spent
20 years researching the toxic effects of methylmercury on infant
who consume large amounts of fish and seafood during pregnancy
are at particular risk; their children can suffer blindness, deafness,
and cerebral palsy. The National Academys review confirmed
more subtle mental deficiencies found at lower doses, which can
affect attention, fine-motor function, language, drawing abilities,
and verbal memory.
Faustman serves on the Phthalates Expert Panel for the National
Toxicology Programs Center for the Evaluation of Risks to
Human Reproduction, convened to provide scientifically based assessments
of the evidence for reproductive and developmental toxicity of
environmental chemicals. The panel assigned a relatively low concern
to five phthalates and a higher concern for one, di (2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate, or DEHP, which is used in building products, food packaging,
childrens products, and medical devices. The most serious
concern was for the high exposure that might be associated with
intensive medical procedures for critically ill infants. Such
heavy exposures affect the developing reproductive tract of male
infants. There also was concern that pregnant women exposed at
allowable levels of DEHP might be adversely affected in the development
of their offspring.
metabolites that CDC measured are the same ones Richard Fenske
and his team have been measuring in its studies of children's
exposure to pesticides. The department did pioneering work in
this area, he said, and collaborated with the CDC in developing
its methodology. "Our choice of the dialkylphosphate metabolites
in 1995 was novel at the time, and contributed to the CDC decision
to develop a method to analyze for these compounds," Fenske
BH, Checkoway H, Van Netten C, Kaufman JD, Vaughan TL, Mueller
BA, Faustman EM. Paternal occupational lead exposure and pregnancy
outcome. Int J Occup Environ Health 1996 Oct;2(4):280-285.
Bartell SM, Takaro TK, Ponce RA, Hill JP, Faustman EM, and Omenn
GS. Risk assessment and screening strategies for beryllium exposure.
Technology 7:241-249, 2000.
CDCs childhood lead web site, http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/lead.htm
Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Lu C, Kalman DA, Simcox NJ, Allen EH, Keifer
MC. Biologically based pesticide dose estimates for children in
an agricultural community. Environ Health Perspect 2000
Health Care Without Harm recommendations on alternatives to PVC
medical products: http://www.noharm.org/hcwh/issues/pvc.html
Loewenherz C, Fenske RA, Simcox NJ, Bellamy G, Kalman D. Biological
monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children
of agricultural workers in central Washington state. Environ
Health Perspect 1997 Dec;105(12):1344-1353.
Lu C, Knutson DE, Fisker-Anderson J, Fenske RA. Biological monitoring
survey of organophosphorus pesticide expo-sure among preschool
children in Seattle metropolitan area. Environ Health Perspect
Lu H, Guizzetti M, Costa LG. Inorganic lead increases the proliferation
of human astrocytoma cells: possible role of protein kinase C.
Toxicol Sci 1998; 42 (1S): 198.
National Academy of Sciences. EPAs methylmercury guideline
is scientifically justifiable for protecting most Americans, but
some may be at risk. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309071402/html
lead poison the Roman Empire?
Leads discovery dates back to
3500 BC. Lead artifacts have been found throughout the ancient
world, and some researchers have suggested that lead poisoning
was a major factor in the downfall of the Roman Empire.
Romans painted their walls a rich Pompeian red, which owed its
color to a salt of lead or mercury. Lead was used for water pipes,
cups, toys, statues, cosmetics, coffins, and roofs, but the most
significant source may have been the wine of the wealthy class.
Columba Gilfillan proposed a theory for Roman decay in 1965 that
involved poisons esteemed as delicious by the ancient well-to-do.
Spoilage was a problem in ancient Rome, and vintners discovered
that wine tasted better and lasted longer if it was mixed with
a concentrated grape syrup called sapa. The best sapa was boiled
in lead pots, allowing lead to leach into the syrup. When sapa
was mixed with wine, it sweetened it and also poisoned the microorganisms
that cause fermentation and souring. Sapa was also used in fruit
and honey drinks, and as a food preservative.
Eisinger estimated a Roman consuming a liter of wine a day would
ingest about 20 mg of lead per day, which he said was more than
enough to produce chronic lead poisoning.
cultural shift at the height of the Roman Empire made it socially
acceptable for wives to drink wine, to which Gilfillan attributed
a declining birth rate and a low rate of surviving children among
the wealthy. Today, the reproductive effects of lead are well
established, as are the effects on childhood development and learning
hypothesized that the diet of the poor was not so badly poisoned
as that of the rich. Although they drank the same water, they
lacked the luxuries of cosmetics, lead paint, wine, fruit and
honey drinks, or preserved foods.
role did lead play in decline of the Roman Empire? We may never
know for certain, but the
evidence is intriguing.
J, Lead and wine: Eberhard Gockel and the Colica Pictonum.
Medical History, 26(1982):278-302.
SC. Lead Poisoning and the fall of Rome. Journal of Occupational
HA. Lead poisoning in the ancient world. Med. Hist. (Lond)
Muhlberger, an associate professor of Medieval History at Nipissing
University in Ontario, has compiled a bibliography:
Rene Showlund describes her work on skin absorption of pesticides
to Terry Kavanagh at the poster session at Student Research Day.
department used a new format for this year's Student Research
Day, May 24. Four graduate students-one from each program-were
invited to present their research in an hour-long seminar in Hogness
Auditorium. The remaining students presented their work in a poster
session that followed (see page 6). Some of the posters can be
viewed online here.
Abstracts are online here.
The featured presentations were:
Anne Caughlan, an MS candidate in Toxicology,
investigated mechanisms by which pesticide exposure in utero may
interfere with cognitive development. Her team from the Child
Health Center is studying how the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos
might interfere with development of the brain and nervous system.
Caughlan studied apoptosis-or programmed cell death-a complex
process critical to the development of the central nervous system.
She used an in vitro culture system to model neuron development,
and showed that chlorpyrifos and its active metabolite induce
apoptosis in postnatal and embryonic rat cortical neurons. She
also found impairment of mitochondrial function, which may serve
as a biomarker of effect.
Winnemuller, an MS candidate in Industrial Hygiene and Safety,
worked with the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries
to evaluate supervisor assessments of ergonomic risks. Hazard
identification tasks often are assigned to supervisors. Winnemuller
surveyed 37 supervisors in five industries, asking them to assess
the jobs they oversee for posture, force, repetition, impact,
lifting, and vibration. Their assessments were compared with an
ergonomist's job analysis. Every supervisor identified at least
one risk factor, though overall they overestimated levels of risk.
The highest agreement was on heavy lifting and the lowest on repetition,
with levels of agree-ment ranging from 59% to 89%. Winnemuller
concluded that use of supervisors to assess ergonomic risk appeared
federal standards for small airborne particles (PM2.5) have prompted
the question of where to locate monitoring stations. Emily Goswami,
an MS candidate in the Environmental Health Technology program,
mapped optimal sites in the Seattle area. She collected data from
40 outdoor sites and analyzed them to produce a computer model
of the city. By overlaying Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
maps for elevation, distance from the nearest arterial road, and
high population density of elderly persons-those most at risk-she
mapped areas that meet all three criteria. The composite map showed
five optimal monitoring locations: Capitol Hill, Crown Hill, West
Seattle, Maple Leaf, and Greenwood.
Firestone, an MPH candidate in Occupational and Environmental
Medicine, studied whether particular environmental exposures and
genetic factors increase the risk for Parkinson's disease. In
a population-based, case-control study, he found modest increases
in risk among farmers from pesticide application, crop farming,
orchard growing, and exposure to pesticides, but not from dairy
farming or exposure to insecticides. Animal farming, landscaping,
and exposure to herbicides seemed to present a decreased risk.
In industrial occupations, he found increased risk from copper
smelting (arsenic or copper exposures), lead smelting, and mining,
but not from manganese, solvents, iron smelting, foundry work,
welding, or exposures to lead, nickel, magnesium, or chromate.
Goswami. Spatial characteristics of fine particulate matter
and nitrogen dioxide in Seattle: identifying representative
monitoring sites (Tech, Liu)
Showlund. Transfer of pesticide residues to skin following contact
with a contaminated surface (Tech, Kissel)
Wang. The cardiopulmonary effects of 300 ppb NO2 on healthy
subjects (Tech, Koenig)
Weppner. Farm exposures to deposited arsenic and lead on Vashon/Maury
Island (Tech, Kissel)
Eng. Evaluation of hearing conservation awareness within high
noise industries within Washington state (IHS, Daniell)
Leo. Evaluation of a hearing protection task observation protocol
in two high noise industries (IHS, Daniell)
Majar. Respirable dust and silica exposure assessment in construction
tasks (IHS, Seixas)
Siahpush. Longitudinal study of asthma-like symptoms in aluminum
smelter work (IHS, Kaufman)
Whitaker. Accuracy of construction worker recall of tasks for
epidemiological exposure assessment to noise (IHS, Seixas)
Winnemuller. The validity of supervisor assessments in identifying
ergonomic risk factors (IHS, Kaufman)
Yingratanasuk. An assessment of lung disease and silica exposure
in a stone carving company in Chonburi province, Thailand (IHS,
Arnaiz. Genetic factors in the development of an asthma-like
condition while employed in the aluminum smelter potroom (OccMed,
Firestone. Occupational risk factors for Parkinsons disease
Kieu. Demographics of hoarders in Seattle (OccMed, Treser)
Morris. Decompression illness in children: A comparison of children
and adults (OccMed, Brodkin)
Bellas. Identification and characterization of a human glutathione
S-tranferase M2 variant (Tox, Eaton)
Bekris. Glutamate-cysteine ligase levels in human peripheral
blood lymphocytes: Improved flow cytometry based method for
evaluating immune and antioxidant relationships (Tox, Kavanagh)
Burry. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of toluene (Tox, Costa)
Caughlan. Apoptosis: A novel endpoint for chlorpyrifos-induced
neurotoxicity (Tox, Xia)
Hoeft. A biologically based dose-response model for ethanol-induced
developmental neurotoxicity (Tox, Faustman)
Leaman. Investigation of p21 as a mechanism for the inhibitory
effects of ethanol on the proliferation of astrocytoma cells
Ghatpande. Effects of particulate matter on heart rate and blood
pressure of control and ApoE knockout mice (Tox, Luchtel)
Programs: Industrial Hygiene and Safety (IHS); Environmental Health
Technology (Tech); Toxicology (Tox); Occupational Medicine (OccMed).
Preceptors also are in parentheses.
Prajakta Ghatpande (left) describes her research on cardiovascular
effects of particulate air pollution at the poster session.
confirm this schedule or find more information about these courses,
call (206) 543-1069, or visit the Continuing Education Web site
Courses are in Seattle unless noted.
Center for Occupational Health & Safety
Hazardous Substance Summer Institute
2324 Process Safety Management
July 25 Annual Hazardous Waste Refresher
26 Supervising Hazardous Waste
July 27 Emergency Response Operations
2731 Comprehensive Review of Industrial Hygiene (Vancouver,
2627 Governor's Safety & Health Conference
25 Successful Ergonomics Programs:
From Awareness Education to Zero Lifting
13 Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents: Improving
Interagency Response (Yakima)
1112 Northwest Occupational Health Conference
10 Occupational Dermatitis:
Symptoms, Causes, and Controls
17 A Small Dose of Toxicology:
How Chemicals Affect Your Health, Basic Course
18 A Larger Dose of Toxicology:
How Chemicals Affect Your Health, Advanced Course
57 Nonionizing Radiation Protection: An Overview
1011 International Mountain Logging
& 11th Pacific Northwest Skyline
12 Forest Worker Safety Training
Training Institute Education Center
OSHA 600: Collateral Duty for Other Federal Agencies (Portland)
1618 OSHA 226: Permit-Required Confined Space
2126 OSHA 225: Principles of Ergonomics (Portland)
30Aug 2 OSHA 501: Trainer Course for General
69 OSHA 501: Trainer Course for General Industry
1315 OSHA 222A: Respiratory Protection
2023 OSHA 521: OSHA Guide to Industrial Hygiene
2730 OSHA 510: OSHA Standards for Construction
1012 OSHA 503: General Industry Outreach Trainer
1720 OSHA 204A: Machinery & Machine Guarding
2426 OSHA 502: Construction Industry Trainer
14 OSHA 301: Excavation, Trenching & Soil
1518 OSHA 500: Trainer Course for the Construction
29Nov 1 OSHA 311: Fall Arrest Systems (Richland)
57 OSHA 225: Principles of Ergonomics
1316 OSHA 501: Trainer Course for General Industry
2729 OSHA 226: Permit-Required Confined Space
36 OSHA 510: OSHA Standards for Construction
1013 OSHA 521: OSHA Guide to Industrial Hygiene
Adrienne Hidy demonstrates PNASH outreach poster
students Doug Johns and George
Astrakianakis each won $2,000 in this years Stockhausen
also won a $6,000 TSI Inc./Arthur J. Abrams Endowed Scholarship
from the American Industrial Hygiene Foundation. He is a first
year PhD student in the industrial hygiene program.
Hidy, manager of the Pacific Northwest
Agricultural Safety and Health Center, received the Departments
Distinguished Staff Service Award and was honored at the School
of Public Health convocation. Other nominees for the distinguished
staff award were: Russell Dills,
research scientist; Jennifer Grant,
assistant to the chair; Bill Griffith,
research manager; Shannon Kirkpatrick,
graduate program coordinator; Joel Levin,
computer specialist; Dianne Neil,
research scientist; Rebecca Rooney,
fiscal supervisor; and Jeffry Shirai,
research scientist. Neil was
the departments nominee for the UW Distinguished Staff Award.
departments 2000-2001 outreach awards went to Kathy
Hall, staff, and Matt Keifer,
faculty. Each received $1,000 for travel or equipment. The departments
Outreach Committee presented the awards at the annual staff appreciation
brunch. Hall was recognized for transforming the departments
ability to communicate with external and internal audiences through
publications and web sites. Keifer was recognized for his work
with a farmworker clinic in the Yakima Valley.
presented a keynote speech at the National Occupational Health
Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam, in May. While in Southeast Asia,
he met with the faculty of Burapha University, a partner in the
International Scholars for Occupational Medicine program.
Kris Freeman, and Adrienne
Hidy presented a panel on communicating risks to nontraditional
audiences at the Society for Technical Communication in Chicago
Hall and Hidy also presented a paper on communicating with migrant
agricultural workers, and Hall
chaired a panel on regulatory writing. Hall
and Donna Prisbrey presented
a session about involving migrant agricultural workers in health
promotion at the 10th annual conference of the International Association
for Public Participation in Vancouver, BC, in May.
Kissel has been elected president of
the International Society of Exposure Analysis (ISEA). Sally
Liu was elected as a councilor of ISEA.
Checkoway presented a paper on environmental
and genetic factors in Parkinsons disease at a workshop
on Department of Defense-sponsored research in Potomac, Maryland,
in March. He presented papers on Parkinsons disease and
silica exposure at the Symposium on Environmental Health and Occupational
Risk Assessment in Beijing, China, in June.
Griffith gave a talk on ergonomic assessment
strategies at the Puget Sound ChapterAmerican Society of
Safety Engineers Professional Development Conference in May.
van Belle is an appointed member of
the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee,
Food and Drug Administration, which is considering whether mild
cognitive impairment is an identifiable clinical syndrome.
Costa presented a paper at the International
Neurotoxicology Association meeting in Estoril (Portugal) in June.
Faustman taught a course on reproductive
and developmental toxicology in May at the International Union
of Toxicology Continuing Education in Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Faustman presented Mechanisms underlying childrens
susceptibility to environmental toxicants in May at the
Medical Research Council of South Africa/NIEHS Childrens
Workshop, also in Stellenbosch.
April, Dave Eaton presented
a lecture on Toxicology in the Courtroom as part of an American
Law Institute/American Bar Association Continuing Education program
on Scientific Evidence. In May, he participated in the first two
meetings of a National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council
panel appointed at the request of President Bush to review the
scientific basis for EPAs proposal to lower the current
drinking water standard for arsenic from the current level of
50 ppb to 10 ppb.
Kamel, professor of Environmental and
Occupational Medicine at the University of Alexandria, Egypt,
was here as a visiting scientist. He and Tom
Burbacher are working on a study on the exposure of
children in Alexandria to lead.
Seixas, Janice Camp,
Peter Johnson, Mike
Yost and Richard Fenske
attended the X2001Exposure Assessment in Epidemiology and
Practice conference in Göteborg, Sweden, in June. The scientific
conference was organized by the Department of Occupational Medicine
of Göteborg, the Swedish National Institute for Working Life,
and the Scientific Committee of Industrial Hygiene of the International
Commission on Occupational Health.
(Chuck) Treser, Carl
Osaki and 11 undergraduate students attended the Washington
State Environmental Health Associations Education Conference
in April in Yakima.
predict how we respond to toxicants
Omiecinski uses new genetic tools to find answers to basic metabolic
questions, such as why some people easily metabolize their medicines
while others suffer adverse side effects. His research can also
help explain why some people are more prone to pesticide poisoning
professor of Environmental Health and director of the Toxicology
program, presented the spring quarter Distinguished Faculty Lecture
for the School of Public Health and Community Medicine.
whose background is in pharmacology, studies biotransformation
enzymes that help the body detoxify or transform man-made or natural
chemicals. Each persons ability to detoxify chemicals is
affected by genetics, since each person is born with slightly
different genes for biotransformation enzymes. Omiecinskis
basic research into the biotransformation of xenobiotic chemicals
(chemical compounds that are foreign to a living organism) may
help scientists develop antidotes to poisons and better ways to
adjust doses of prescription medicines. His speech was entitled:
Xenobiotic metabolism: Regulation, variation and toxicogenomics.
work could lead to individualized dosing of medications. People
who transform medications quicklyand flush them out of their
bodiesmight need higher doses that could cause side effects
in others. Individualized dosing could be especially important
for potent pharmaceuticals with side effects.
is a pioneer in toxicogenomics, which combines the emerging technologies
of genomics and bioinformatics. The toxicogenomics approach grew
out of the human genome project. Rather than using animals to
study genetic susceptibility to illness, this technology probes
human or animal genetic material densely printed on glass slides,
called DNA arrays. Eventually, Omiecinski said, toxicogenomics
could substitute for animal assays in toxicity testing.
Eaton assumes presidency of Society
Eaton presented his goals and vision as incoming president
of the Society of Toxicology at its annual meeting in
San Francisco in March. He also presented the "vice
president's forum," where he challenged the Society's
policy of accepting corporate sponsorships from tobacco
companies, and provided an opportunity for other members
to speak for and against the current policy.
Faustman co-chaired a continuing education course,
Improving Risk Assessment for Human Development Defects:
The Promise of Recent Advances in Developmental Biology
and Genomics. Her co-chair was Abigail Stack of the National
Resource Council. Speakers included Daniel Nebert, University
of Cincinnati, a member of the UW Center for Ecogenetics
and Environmental Health Science Advisory Board.
abstract from Faustmans lab won awards for best student
presentation from both the Risk Assessment Specialty Division
and the Biological Modeling Specialty Section:
JM, Bartell SM, Wong EY, Lewandowski TA, Griffith WC,
A biologically based dose-response model for ethanol development
abstract by Hailing Lu, a recently graduated PhD student from
the laboratory of Lucio Costa won an award from the Metals Specialty
Section. Lu also won the SOT Travel award to attend the meeting.
H, Guizzetti M, and
Inorganic lead activates the RAF-MEK-MAPK signaling pathway in
human astrocytoma cells via a PCK-dependent mechanism
presentations by DEH-affiliated researchers included:
Bellas C, Yang Z, Wong GK, Yu J, Adman ET, Checkoway
H, Eaton DL. Identification and characterization of
a human glutathione S-transferase M2 variant
LM, Jabbour AJ, Takaro TK, Kavanagh TK, Faustman EM.
PHA stimulation induces elevated gluta-mate-L-cysteine ligase
levels in human peripheral blood lymphocytes: improved flow cytometry
based method for evaluating immune and antioxidant relationships
D, White CC,
Shi S, Ware CB, Ladiges WC, Fausto N, Tsai SY, OMalley BW,
Kavanagh TJ. Development
of a transgenic mouse model for inducible overexpression of glutamate-cysteine
A, Namgung U, Xia Z.
Arsenite and cholpyrifos-induced apoptosis in cortical neurons
is mediated by MAP kinases
Environment, genes, and genomic markers in Parkinsons disease
(invited platform presentation at a special session on Parkinsons
D, White CC, Keener CL, Farin FM, Kavanagh TJ.
Tissue-dependent differential expression of glutamate-L-cysteine
ligase subunits during mouse development
FJ, Ellis ME, Kushleika J, Woods JS.
Mercuric ion (HG2+) attenuates nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activation
in kidney epithelial cells by impairing IkB degradation, NF-kB
translocation and NF-kB-DNA binding
ME, Corral J, Kushleika J, Simmonds PL, Deiguez-Acuna FJ, Woods
Mercuric ion (HG2+ ) induces nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) independently
of NF-kB activation in rat kidney (NRK52E) cells
C, DeRouen TA, Woods JS, Liang
L, Luis HS, Simmonds PL, Leitao J, Bernado M, Redford M, Martin
MD. Dietary methylmercury exposure in the Casa Pia dental amalgam
study in children
Lowney YW, Tsuji JS. A critical analysis of assumptions used when
evaluating intake of metals from homegrown vegetables
AJ, Ponce RA, Rosato MT, Kavanagh TJ,
Newman LS, Takaro TK, Faustman EM.
A flow cytometric assay for beryllium sensitization: screening
and mechanistic applications
NL, Faustman EM, Griffith WC,
A value of information assessment for congener specific analytical
techniques for PCBs: Do they meet risk assessment needs?
TA, Bartell SM, Ponce RA,
Mechanism-based comparison of in vitro and in vivo data on methylmercury
toxicity in developing rodents
WF, Costa LG,
Richter RJ, Hagen T, Shih DM, Tward A, Lusis AJ, Furlong CE. Catalytic
efficiency of substrate hydrolysis determines the in vivo detoxication
of organophosphorus (OP) compounds by human paraoxonase (PON1)
S, Kavanagh T, Faustman E.
Effects of methylmercury on mitochondria in the developing brain
RH, Krejsa CM, Diaz-Lopez D,
Campbell JS, Fausto N, Kavanagh TJ.
Upregulation of glutamate-cysteine ligase in perinecrotic hepatocytes
in mice exposed to carbon tetrachloride
J, Keener CL, Farin FM,
Tonelli MR, Aitken ML, Kavanagh TJ.
Characterization of GLCL gene polymorphisms in cystic fibrosis
Schriner SE, Ogburn CE, Martin GM, Kavanagh
TJ. Levels of GPX, GRX, and G6PDH in catalase transgenic
mice of different ages
HE, Abel EL, Kelly EJ, Altman GB, Malins DC, Eaton
DL. Expression of polymorphic enzymes of estradiol
metabolism in human endometrium
CC, Kavanagh TJ.
A sensitive and specific fluorescence assay for glutathione in
microtiter plates using 2,3-napthalene-dicarboxyaldehyde
Z, Namgung U.
Kinase signaling pathways that regulate neuronal apoptosis
members are highlighted.
& Exposition, June 2-7, New Orleans
student Carolyn Reeb Whitaker
won two awards at the American Industrial Hygiene Associations
annual conference and exposition for her poster, Accuracy of
construction worker recall of tasks for epidemiological exposure
assessment to noise. She won a $250 award for best student
poster from the Occupational Epidemiology Committee and
best student poster, awarded by the Graduate Student
Poster Session Review Committee. Hers was selected from among
the 30 submitted to the conference. The DEHs
Lynn Wilder received this award last year. Carolyns
co-authors were Noah Seixas, Lianne Sheppard,
and Rick Neitzel.
Post-Intelligencer reporters Andrew
Schneider and Carol Smith won
the AIHA Social Concerns Committees award for the top investigative
news story of the year on occupational safety and health issues.
The P-I published a series of investigative articles called
Asbestos: The Forgotten Killer.
presentations by Department of Environmental Health researchers
S, Seixas N, Morgan M.
Adaptation of existing electrochemical instruments for the real-time
personal monitoring of hydrogen fluoride in the presence of sulfur
G, Flanagan M, Seixas N, Guffey
S. The effect of local exhaust ventilation controls on dust exposures
during masonry activities
K, Takaro T, Stover B. Use
of risk density mapping to refine risk estimates for beryllium
exposure at Hanford
M, Loewenherz C,
Kuhn G. Wet concrete saw cutting inside - How much water is enough?
M, Loewenherz C,
Camp. J. Control of silica
exposure for concrete surface grindingacase
Nason J. Evaluation of total and removable levels of arsenic,
mercury, and lead in natural history museum artifacts as a preface
to preparing guidance for the handling of repatriatedartifacts
R, Yu J.
A side-by-side study of a replaceable sorbent passive monitor
with a commonly used passive monitor for styrene and acetone
Wagner W. The status of industrial hygiene programs in China
R, Seixas N,
Kujawa S, Thomas K, Brower S. Baseline hearing levels and otoacoustic
emissions in a cohort of construction apprentices and controls
R, Seixas N,
Brower S, Thomas K, Sheppard L.
Noise exposure assessment methodology and year one results of
a four-year prospective study of noise-induced hearing loss in
Evaluation of hearing conservation practices in an industry with
a high rate of workers compensation claims for hearing loss
members are highlighted.
Berhan Beraki, BS; Alma Cardenas, MS; Cecile Krejsa, PhD;
Thomas Lewandowki, PhD; Amy Scanlon, MS; Shengli Shi, MS;
Hongbin Xiao, MS
Vanessa J. Bussiere, BS; Hailing Lu, PhD; Jeffery Thompson, MPH
Nilo Arnaiz, MPH; Shireen Assaf, BS; Chester L. Baldwin III, BS;
Charryse Birge, BS; David Braungardt, BS; Anne Caughlan,
Mark Ghezzi, BS; Emily Goswami, MS; Kimquy Kieu, MPH;
Wendy Kirchoff, BS; Maria Majar, MS; Christopher Miele, BS;
Hongxia Wang, MS; Carolyn Whitaker, MS; Lori Winnemuller, MS;
Kenton Wise, BS; Tanongsak Yingratanasuk, MS
Lynn Bekris, MS; Christine Bellas, MS; Mark Burry, MS; Dolo Diaz,
Milton Eng, MS; Jordan Firestone, MPH; Prajakta Ghatpande, MS;
Julia Hoeft, MS; Noel Hudson, PhD; Susan Leaman, MS; Robert Leo,
Karen Masakane, BS; Gabrielle Morris, MPH; Rene Showlund, MS;
Hossein Siahpush, MS; Jeff Stewart, MS
is published three times a year by the Department of Environmental
Health at the University of Washington. Inquiries should be addressed
Environmental Health News
Box 354695, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Suite 100,
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the department on the World Wide Web at http://depts.washington.edu/envhlth/
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below is included. We would appreciate receiving a copy of your
2000 ISSN number 0029-7925
of Environmental Health, University of Washington.
Sharon L. Morris
Senior Writer & Editor
Editorial Assistant -- Kipling
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Chair -- David
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