PUBLIC HEALTH AND COMMUNITY MEDICINE - UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON WINTER,
Changes Its Name
former Department of Environmental Health officially became the Department
of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences on Feb. 1. We believe
the new name better describes the scope of research, teaching, and
service activities in our department. This issue of Environmental
Health News describes reasons for the change and profiles programs
that show the close relationships between our environmental and occupational
health missions, and between our basic and applied science research
Us Celebrate Our New Identity
May 22, from 12:30
to 3:00 pm, the Department of Environmental and Occupational
Health Sciences will host a celebration of our new name, and
of this year’s class of student researchers.
You are invited to our annual Student Research Day. Four selected
graduate students will present their research at a seminar
in Auditorium D209 in the Health Sciences Building, followed
by an open house in the lobby of the Health Sciences Building.
The open house will feature posters by graduating master’s
and some PhD student researchers.
Watch for a flier in the mail and on our Web site.
can be challenging. With this issue of our newsletter we highlight
our departmental name change, from “Environmental Health”
to “Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences.”
The change was approved by the departmental faculty in October and
the University of Washington Board of Regents in January.
adding the word “occupational” to our title, we emphasize
our contributions in the field of workplace health and safety. The
inclusion of “sciences” makes explicit the academic
thrust of our department. We have been involved in workplace health
and safety issues since at least the early 1960s and workplace hazards
figure prominently in our mission statement.
hope that this change will better communicate our mission and activities.
We found that the old name was not well understood and often confused
with other departments on campus, such as the Environmental Health
and Safety service program and the Program on the Environment. At
the same time, we saw a need to better describe our department and
its programs, both to recruit students and to convey our academic
focus to people on and off campus.
Though our name has changed, our mission remains the same:
identify agents in the environment and the workplace that affect
elucidate their mechanisms
develop strategies for confronting their effects
share the knowledge obtained.
addressing this public health mission, our goal is to promote excellence
in education and research.
name change and proposed makeover of our printed and electronic
information is part of a larger effort to increase our communication
with external clients and partners. We have added other activities
and events to this outreach effort, and this year will be launching
a new advisory “partnership” committee composed of employers
and workers in Washington state. In this and future issues of Environmental
Health News, you will learn of new efforts to convert our academic
activities into improvements in workplace safety and health. Stay
Name Is New, The Program Isn't!
words “occupational” and “sciences” were
added to the department’s name in 2003, but a focus on both
dates back half a century.
between occupational and environmental health is not new, said Lee
Monteith, who joined the department in 1965. He recalls the Environmental
Research Laboratory (ERL) doing sampling and analysis for small
business in the 1960s. “In the old days, there was nobody
else to look at workplace exposures, so we went out and investigated,”
Hatlen, who earned his undergraduate degree in our department in
1949 and has been on faculty since 1952, recalls that the name Environmental
Health was first used to identify a new division within the Department
of Preventive Medicine. This division included the undergraduate
program in Sanitary Science (which was renamed Environmental Health)
and a greatly expanded Environmental Research Laboratory. The environmental
emphasis was strengthened in 1963, he recalls, when the Legislature
allocated workers’ compensation funds to the Environ-mental
1970, Environmental Health became a department in the new School
of Public Health and Community Medicine. A preventive medicine residency
program began shortly thereafter. Teaching, research, and service
were given equal weight in the early days, Hatlen said. The Environmental
Health Laboratory (successor to the Environmental Research Laboratory)
still supports service, basic research, and student training.
then, the department’s emphasis “might have been a little
more toward the practical,” Monteith said, but applied research
soon grew into longer-term studies. In the late 1960s, for example,
Monteith was in Oregon sampling the smoke from slash burns and calculating
environmental and occupational exposures (a forerunner
to research being done in the department today).
indusrial hygiene courses offered at Uw School of Medicine.
Research Laboratory officially established at UW School of Medicine.
State Legislature funds the Enironmental Research Laboratory
to do research, teching, and service in occupational health.
of Environmental Health established in new School of Public
Health and Community Medicine.
establishes Northwest Center for Occupational Health & Safety
changed to Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
First Occ Med Doc
graduated from the University of Parma in 1659 with doctorates in
philosophy and medicine. In 1682, he returned to his hometown University
of Modena as chair of medicine. In 1700, he accepted the chair of
practical nedicine at the University of Padua and published the
first edition of his most famous book, the De Morbis Artificum (Diseases
von Guericke invents an air pump.
Huygens constructs an accurate pendulum clock.
Gregory invents the first reflecting telescope.
Newton publishes his first physical laws.
watches add minutes hands.
Newton's Principia Mathematica
first daily newspaper in the English language, Daily Courant
Parliament passes Copyright Act
Cristofori invents the piano
book, the first comprehensive work on occupational diseases, outlines
the health hazards of chemicals, dust, metals, and other abrasive
agents encountered by workers in 52 occupations.
often quoted Pliny, Hippocrates, and other ancient Greeks. He also
made his own observations. For example, he noted that goldsmiths
who breathe mercury fumes “soon become subject to vertigo,
asthma, and paralysis. Very few of them reach old age, and even
when they do not die young their health is so terribly undermined
that they pray for death.”
was a keen observer, even within the limitations of the science
his time. He describes the death of a young goldsmith: “He
died without having had the least sign of fever. This was a great
surprise to me, for I could not make out how so great a putrefaction
of the humors could fail to excite fever heat.” Ramazzini
described a later finding that mercury reduces fever, and even suggested
prescribing “sweet mercury” as a remedy for fevers.
was familiar with herbal remedies of the time, and prescribed what
might today be considered folk remedies. He wrote, “nothing
is better than vinegar for correcting and breaking up the narcotic
element of opium.” He also prescribed olive oil and hot baths
for workers’ ailments.
advocated occupational and public health protections.
For the health of cleaners of privies and cesspits, he writes: “It
is right and proper that the art of medicine should furnish some
sort of protection for these workers whose labor is so necessary
in every city.”
also exhorted his fellow physicians to take an occupational history
of every patient, advice that remains pertinent today.
Franco, G. “Ramazzini and workers’ health.” The
Lancet. 354:858–859. Sept. 4, 1999.
Ramazzini, B. Diseases of Workers: De Morbis Artificum.
New York Academy
of Medicine, History of Medicine Series, No. 23. Hafner Publishing
Co., New York, 1964.
Faculty Lecture: Harvey Checkoway
are two essentials for discovering environmental risks for disease,”
Professor Harvey Checkoway said at the winter quarter Distinguished
Faculty Lecture for the School of Public Health and Community Medicine.
“First you need good research questions. Then, you need the
right populations for study. An element of luck also helps.”
Checkoway, the “right populations” have included diatomaceous
earth workers in California, lead smelter workers in British Columbia,
and textile workers in China. He has conducted research on the health
effects of exposure to silica, lead, solvents, pesticides, cigarettes,
and various dietary items.
diversity reflects the broad range of Checkoway’s research,
which frequently crosses boundaries between environmental and occupational
and his colleagues have studied the possible causes of diseases
such as silicosis that are almost exclusively related to exposures
on the job, as well as Parkinson’s disease and lowered sperm
counts that have been associated with both environmental and occupational
used an admittedly mixed metaphor in the title of his presentation,
“Identifying environmental risk factors for disease: From
slam dunks to needles in haystacks.” His goal was to describe
the differing levels of certainty and complexity in his research
results. The “slam dunk” was a relatively clear-cut
case of occupational exposure to silica leading to silicosis and
other lung diseases. The “needle in a haystack” referred
to environmental and genetic risk factors for Parkinson’s
research by Checkoway and others has shown that Parkinson’s
disease risks may involve interactions among numerous genes, and
can be related to both environmental and occupational exposures.
machine operator in Shanghai, China Photo by Harvey Checkoway
common link among these projects is the use of epidemiological methods
to study possible associations among genes, the environment, and
disease. Checkoway has a joint appointment in both the Department
of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences and the Department
of Epidemiology. He also directs the
UW Superfund Research Program and the Training Grant
in Environmental and Molecular Epidemiology, both funded by the
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
studies typically examine differences in health risks between people
exposed to a substance presumed to be hazardous and people without
such exposure. This is known as a “cohort study.” Alternatively,
epidemiological “case-control” studies involve past
exposures among people, referred to as “cases,” who
have a certain disease compared with exposures experienced by people,
called “controls,” who do not have the disease. Well-known
examples of these two types of research include cohort studies of
cancer among workers exposed to asbestos and case-control studies
of lung cancer in smokers and nonsmokers.
Checkoway’s silicosis and lung cancer research, the exposed
cohort was composed of workers in the diatomaceous earth industry
who regularly inhaled crystalline silica on the job. The research
was a “slam dunk” because it showed a clear dose-response
relationship between exposure and disease. A longer and more intense
exposure to crystalline silica was associated with a greater risk
of developing silicosis and lung cancer. Elevated risks were also
found for obstructive lung diseases, such as emphysema. The findings
were applicable only to occupational health because silica exposure
is only a danger on the job. Though sand is a form of silica, “You
won’t get silicosis by visiting the beach,” said Checkoway.
causes of Parkinson’s disease are more subtle and complex
than those for silicosis, and may include lifestyle factors as well
as occupational exposures. For example, Checkoway’s research
has shown that the risk of Parkinson’s disease was reduced
among cigarette smokers, a finding that agrees with most previous
research. Checkoway’s study also showed that the risk reduction
from smoking was limited to men who have one variation of the gene
for the enzyme MAO-B.
seems to be an interrelationship among among smoking, MAO-B, and
Parkinson’s disease; MAO-B destroys dopamine, and smokers
produce less MAO-B enzyme. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that coordinates
movement. Lack of dopamine causes Parkinson’s disease.
Costa-Mallen, research scientist (foreground), and Zahra Afsharinejad,
research technologist analyze DNA samples from Parkinson's disease
study subjects using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) machine.
Photo by Devon DeLapp
results from this gene–environment interaction have been both
supported and contradicted by other research. This ambiguity may
be due to the relatively small size of the groups that have been
studied. “To investigate gene–environment interactions
effectively, studies will need to include thousands of cases and
controls,” said Checkoway. Finding such large numbers of participants
and conducting the relevant studies can be difficult and expensive
for a single lab or university department. Therefore, Checkoway
is exploring collaborations with other research groups to pool resources
is also continuing to explore other environmental and occupational
factors that may affect the risk for Parkinson’s disease,
including exposures to manganese and pesticides.
Faculty Member: Chris Simpson
smoke is an environmental health concern. It hangs over cities and
valleys each winter and some people—the most susceptible among
us—can become ill or die from it. Wood smoke is also an occupational
health problem, particularly for wildland firefighters.
Christopher Simpson, the department’s newest faculty member,
studies both environmental and occupational exposures. His goals
are to accurately assess exposures and determine how various doses
of wood smoke affect health symptoms. He is also looking into how
quickly the body excretes wood-smoke compounds.
Simpson, an environmental and analytical chemist, is working with
the Environmental Protection Agency’s Northwest Research Center
for Particulate Air Pollution and Health (PM Center), housed at
UW. There he is involved with measuring exposures to air pollutants,
especially at low levels. One concern is health effects among vulnerable
measures biomarkers of exposure—many of them developed by
Dave Kalman and others in the Environmental Health Laboratory. Biomarkers
provide an accurate way of assessing an individual’s exposure,
Simpson said (see next page). Direct measurement of pollutants using
regional monitors isn’t as reliable, he said, because wood
smoke levels vary throughout Seattle’s hills and valleys,
and throughout the day (they are higher in the evening).
measuring biomarkers in urine samples, Simpson can calculate a person’s
exposure to wood smoke over the past few days. He can also separate
wood-smoke exposure from other environmental pollutants, such as
usually proceeds from the high exposures of occupational groups
to the lower exposures in the environment. It is simpler technically
to measure bio--markers in a high-exposure situation and fewer samples
are required to observe significant effects. Simpson’s research
has gone the opposite direction—from environmental to occupational
exposure—because his initial studies were funded by the Environmental
Protection Agency through the PM Center.
recently started an occupational study funded by the National Institute
for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to study smoke exposures
in wildland fire-fighters who set controlled burns. Controlled burns
are predictable, and it is possible to take baseline samples from
firefighters who are scheduled to fight the blaze.
Simpson says that a lot of evidence exists that wood smoke is bad
for human health. “It’s hard for people to believe,”
he said. “We all grew up with occasional exposure to campfires,
and we have a lot of familiarity.” But, especially in the
developing world, studies have tied high levels of wood-smoke exposure
to chronic conditions. Much of this research has been done in rural
India, where people burn plant material and animal waste for heat.
PM team has looked at health effects, including increased prevalence
and severity of asthma and respiratory symptoms, increased asthma
medication use, changes in lung function, and cardiac effects. People
vary in their sensitivity to wood smoke.
can cause occupational as well as enironmental exposures. Photo
by US Army Master Sgt. Lewis Matson, National Interagency Fire
his native New Zealand, Simpson worked with biomarkers for physical
or psychological stress in deer, and chlordane contamination in
soil, marine sediments, bivalves, and marine worms. He came to North
America 12 years ago to study environmental chemistry, which isn’t
emphasized in New Zealand.
first came to the University of British Columbia (UBC), where he
received his PhD in environmental and analytical chemistry. He studied
pollution from aluminum smelters in coastal waters, specifically
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in marine sediments and the
soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria. He believes these studies represent
the first time that a PAH-conjugate metabolite has been identified
in mollusks. He also refined a nonlethal measure of exposure to
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mallards.
UBC, he went to the University of Minnesota where, as a post-doctoral
fellow, he focused on methods for analyzing benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)
metabolites in human samples. He developed biomarkers for the activation
of BaP to carcinogenic metabolites. Some of this work was in occupational
health, analyzing biomarkers from steelworkers in Taiwan.
came to Seattle because he “likes the West Coast.” He
has been with the Environmental Health Laboratory and the PM Center
since 2000, and was officially appointed to the faculty as an assistant
professor earlier this month.
was attracted to the department’s combination of epidemiology,
health effects, and analytical chemistry. “I like the way
this department brings together people with different skills to
work on the same project,” he said. “This is important
to both environmental and occupational health sciences.”
is plenty to do in both environmental and occupational health,”
he said. He envisions using biomarkers in high-exposure situations
in India or other developing nations and working with environmental
and occupational health researchers to develop interventions and
monitor their effectiveness.
JIM HUGHES FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR & INDUSTRIES AND CHRISTINE
MORRIS OF TESORO REFINING AND MARKETING CO. EDIT A FORMAL LETTER
DURING A GROUP WRITING EXERCISE AT THE MARCH COURSE ON CLEAR WRITING
FOR SAFETY AND HEALTH PROFESSIONALSEnvironmental Health News is
published three times a year by the Dept. of Environmental and Occupational
Health Sciences at the University of Washington. Inquiries should
be addressed to Environmental Health News, Box 354695, 4225 Roosevelt
Way NE, Suite 100, Seattle, WA 98105-6099; Phone: 206-543-1564;
Find the department on the World Wide Web at http://depts.washington.edu/envhlth.
Reprint permission is granted providing that copyright notice as
given below is included. We would appreciate receiving a copy of
your reprinted material.
© 2003, ISSN number 0029-7925
Department of Environmental and
Occupational Health Sciences,
University of Washington.
Printed by University of Washington Publications
Services on recycled paper
with vegetable-based inks.
Sharon L. Morris
SENIOR WRITER & EDITOR
David A. Kalman
are indicators of events or changes in biological systems.
A biomarker can be a chemical substance or a biochemical response.
A wide range of substances can be used as biomarkers, and they can
be measured in blood, urine, hair, exhaled breath, and saliva.
laboratories in the Department of Environmental and Occupational
Health Sciences use biomarkers, but Chris Simpson, an analytical
chemist in the Environmental Health Laboratory, uses them differently
than the department’s toxicologists.
work measures small amounts of chemicals that are not normally present
in the body, while the toxicologists generally look at changes arising
within the body. For example, toxicologists might look at protein
expressions that indicate exposure to pesticides or mercury, or
DNA changes that signal exposure to a harmful chemical.
biomarker should be abundant and specific to the exposure or response
of interest, Simpson said. For example, methoxyphenols are generated
by burning the wood polymer lignin. They are found in the human
body after exposure to wood smoke. Another component of wood smoke-—vanillin—is
too common to make a good biomarker. It could turn up, for example,
in the urine of someone who has just had ice cream or a vanilla
future of occupational health and safety is evident in Richard Goodrich’s
wood shop at Ballard High School. Under his supervision, the four
classes that work in the school’s wood shop are learning the
proper way to use shop tools, safety devices, and personal protective
Goodrich (right) shows a student how to safely push a board
through a table saw. Photo by Kathy Hall
and his colleagues across the state—from Westport and Mead
to Lyle and East Wenatchee—are working with the Department
of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences’ program
called Health and Safety Awareness for Working Teens to improve
safety education in Washington state high schools.
program grew out of the School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994,
which was designed to coordinate state and local programs that address
the career development and work preparation needs of all students.
high school shop students may not pursue careers in the building
trades or woodworking, they will learn safety lessons and skills
in these wood shop classes that will stay with them through their
future careers and hobbies, said Darren Linker, School to Work program
manager. By developing safe work habits early in life, these students
will be less likely to experience a serious injury. Students are
learning good work habits while they learn their craft, he noted.
Ballard High is typical, wood shop students start learning about
safety from the moment they walk in the door and put on their safety
glasses. In Goodrich’s shop, one of the most potentially hazardous
pieces of equipment—the table saw—was recently equipped
with a new guard and a splitter. Goodrich personally supervises
each of his beginning woodworking students as they learn to use
student cuts a design on a band saw. Photo by Kathy Hall
the state’s high school shop teachers will have a new educational
tool. Leigh Caplan, a designer in the department, is helping Linker
develop a Web site that will walk students step- by-step through
most common shop tools and safety equipment.
example, a student might select a band saw from a virtual shop.
The site will walk him or her through a preflight setup (take off
jewelry, put on safety glasses…) and teach the proper way
to set up and use the machine. After taking a quiz, the student
can move on to the next tool. In addition to learning about tools,
students will also learn about the wide range of safety and health
hazards that are unique to working in a wood shop.
will be able to download safety tests for equipment that is commonly
found in most wood shops. The site will also provide them with other
relevant safety resources related to the building trades. The site
will be particularly useful for teachers who may be new to teaching
or who may lack materials to teach safety to their students, Linker
said. Lessons are written at about a sixth-grade reading level,
so they also can be used in middle schools.
Web project grew out of the School to Work/Occupational Safety and
Health Curriculum advisory committee, Linker said. Statistics showed
that shops—particularly wood shops— were a leading site
for injuries in Washington high schools. Linker conducted a needs
assessment with the building trades subsection of the Washington
Industrial Technology Education Association and decided that a Web
site would be the best educational vehicle.
version of the site was introduced at the Washington Industrial
Technology Education Association’s spring conference in late
March in Wenatchee. Linker sought early feedback to ensure that
the Web site meets the needs of these shop teachers. Response to
the Web site was enthusiastic. As a group, these teachers were eager
from these communities helped develope the web site.
a new tool to reinforce safety with their students. One teacher
said high school students perceive Web sites as credible sources
wood shop safety site, which will be ready for the start of the
2003-2004 school year, will be the first online training aide developed
within the department, said Kathy Hall, the department’s senior
editor. (A third-party vendor developed the Continuing Education
Program’s Region X Online Training Institute.)
department’s School to Work program integrates occupational
safety and health concepts and curricula into secondary-level classrooms
and teacher-training programs. “Our goal is to reduce workplace
injuries and illnesses and their consequences by educating students
about workplace health and safety and by promoting an attitude of
occupational injury and illness prevention,” Linker said.
our Health and Safety Awareness for Working Teens Web site at
The wood shop site will be linked when it is available.
Bates, chair of the external Science Advisory Committee for
the Northwest Center for Particulate Air Pollution and Health, has
been made a member of the Order of Canada, that country’s highest
honor for lifetime achievement. Dr. Bates was recently interviewed
on National Public Radio for his role in treating patients during
London’s killer fog of 1952.
Hassett died in late January at age 51. Dr. Hassett
was a principal research scientist in Curt Omiecinski’s
laboratory. He worked in our department for nearly two decades,
before leaving last summer to help Curt set up his new laboratory
in Pennsylvania. Dr. Hassett made many important contributions
to toxicology, public health genetics, and environmental health.
Camp co-directed the annual Semiahmoo conference with our
peers at the University of British Columbia in January. UW presenters
included Scott Meschke, Pete Johnson, Jennifer Ibbotson,
Noah Seixas, and Dave Kalman.
Hall and Cathy Schwartz won “Best
of Show” in the international technical publications competition
of the Society for Technical Communication for the department’s
biennial report. Hall has been recognized as an
Advanced Toastmaster Gold, the highest award in Toast-masters International
Joel Kaufman gave the annual Alice Hamilton Memorial Lecture
at the University of California, San Francisco, in January on “Emerging
Occupational and Environmental Diseases.”
Carrie (Carrel) Loewenherz, a 1996 graduate, has been hired
as City Research Scientist with New York City's Environmental Health
Bureau. She will work on the production of New York City's chemical
response plan, part of a Centers for Disease Control program to
prepare states and cities to respond to nuclear, biological, and
John Malool, who teaches in the Continuing Education program,
received a distinguished safety award for outstanding service by
the Washington state Department of Agriculture’s waste pesticide
disposal team. More than one million pounds of pesticides have been
disposed without an accident due to Malool’s devotion to hazardous
waste safety training, according to presenters at a January ceremony
Rick Neitzel received an award for outstanding service
to the construction industry through educational efforts from the
Puget Sound Area Construction Safety Summit. He has studied noise
exposures among construction workers.
Sankar Sambandam visited the biomarker lab in December
to learn about our wood smoke assay as part of the Fogarty international
scholars program. He is a senior research officer, Environmental
Health Engineering Cell at Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research
Institute in Tamil Nadu, India. He has been involved with a number
of studies in India examining the health effects associated with
indoor air pollution from biomass burning.
Gerald van Belle was honored for his outstanding contributions
to statistics and public health during the November annual meeting
of the American Public Health Association’s Statistics Section.
Each year, the section makes three awards: to statisticians in academia,
government, and industry/nongovernmental organizations. Van Belle
was honored for his contributions to research in environmental and
occupational health, Alzheimer’s disease, and teaching and
Lori Winnemuller and Steve Russell of
the Field Research and Consultation Group made a presentation to
the Pacific Northwest Section of the American Industrial Hygiene
Association in February on implementing the Washington state ergonomics
confirm this schedule or find more information about these courses,
call (206) 543-1069 or visit the Continuing Education Web site at
Courses are in Seattle unless noted.
Center for Occupational Health & Safety
Ergonomic Hazards in the Workplace
Sound Occupational and Environmental Medicine Grand Rounds
Sound Occupational and Environmental Medicine Grand Rounds
Association of Occupational Health Nursing Core Curriculum in
Training Institute Educational Center
for OSHA rules only!
All classes offer training that meets WISHA, OR-OSHA, and
Alaska state standards.
Trainer Course for General Industry (Portland)
Collateral Duty for Other Federal Agencies (Portland)
Trainer Course for General Industry (Boise)
Excavation, Trenching, and Soil Mechanics (Anchorage)
Principles of Ergonomics
Alaska Cruise: Trainer Course for Construction Industry
(departs from Seattle)
521 OSHA Guide to Industrial Hygiene (Portland)
Electrical Standards (Portland)
Sponsored by The Two Centers
Space Entry (Richland)
for Hazardous Materials (Richland)
Defense—Bioterrorism: An Industrial Workshop (Richland)
Hughes from the Department of Labor & Industries and Christine
Morris of Tesoro Refining and Marketing Co. edit a formal letter
during a group writing exercise at the March course on Clear
Writing for Safety and Health Professionals.
spring 2001 issue of Environmental Health News featured the National
Center for Environmental Health’s National Report on Human
Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. The second such report has
been issued as a continuing assessment of the US population’s
exposure to chemicals in the environment using biomonitoring. The
report is online at http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport.
purpose of the Report is to provide exposure information to scientists,
physicians, and health officials so they can help prevent disease
from exposure to environmental
Report presents new data on the exposure of the US population to
environmental chemicals. Advances in analytical methods allow scientists
to measure lower and lower levels of environmental chemicals
of an environmental chemical in a person's blood or urine does not
by itself mean that the chemical causes disease, but it can point
to further studies that can help determine which blood and urine
levels are safe and which can result in disease.
Health News is published three times a year by the Dept. of Environmental
and Occupational Health Sciences at the University of Washington.
should be addressed to
Environmental Health News
4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Suite 100
Seattle, WA 98105-6099;
the department on the World Wide Web at http://depts.washington.edu/envhlth
permission is granted providing that copyright notice as given below
is included. We would appreciate receiving a copy of your reprinted
2003, ISSN number 0029-7925
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University
Editor - Sharon L. Morris
Writer & Editor - Kathy Hall
Designer - Cathy Schwartz
Assistant - Kipling West
Chair - David A. Kalman
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