Melissa Anne Herrin
Project title: Association Between Maternal Occupational Exposure to Cleaning Chemicals During Pregnancy and Childhood Wheeze and Asthma
Completed in: 2023 | Faculty advisor: Catherine Karr
Background: Asthma is a leading cause of childhood morbidity in the U.S. and a significant public health concern. The prenatal period is a critical window during which environmental influences, including maternal occupational exposures, can shape child respiratory health. Cleaning chemicals are commonly encountered in occupational settings, yet few studies have examined the potential link between prenatal occupational exposures to cleaning chemicals and risk of childhood wheeze and asthma.
Methods: We evaluated the potential influence of maternal occupational exposure to cleaning chemicals during pregnancy on pediatric asthma and wheeze at child age 4–6 years in 453 mother-child pairs from two longitudinal pregnancy cohorts, TIDES and GAPPS, part of the ECHO-PATHWAYS consortium. Maternal occupational exposure to cleaning chemicals was defined based on reported occupation and frequency of occupational use of chemicals during pregnancy. Child current wheeze and asthma outcomes were defined by parental responses to a widely-used, standardized respiratory outcomes questionnaire administered at child age 4–6 years. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate relative risk (RR) of asthma in models adjusted for confounders, including demographic, health, and socioeconomic factors. Effect modification by child sex was assessed using product interaction terms.
Results: Overall, 116 mothers (25.6%) reported occupational exposure to cleaning chemicals during pregnancy, 11.7% of children had current wheeze, and 10.2% had current asthma. We did not identify associations between prenatal exposure to cleaning chemicals and current wheeze [RRadjusted 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56, 1.90] or current asthma (RRadjusted 0.89, CI: 0.46, 1.74) in the overall sample. Analyses of effect modification suggested an adverse association among females for current wheeze (RR 1.82, CI: 0.76, 4.37), compared to males (RR 0.68, CI: 0.29, 1.58), though the interaction p-value was non-significant (p = 0.13).
Conclusion: We did not observe evidence of associations between maternal prenatal occupational exposure to cleaning chemicals and childhood wheeze or asthma in the multi-site ECHO-PATHWAYS consortium. We leveraged longitudinal U.S. pregnancy cohorts with rich data characterization to expand on limited and mixed literature. Future research with more precise characterization of maternal occupational chemical exposures, including specific chemical types and timing, and larger and diverse cohorts would be most informative.