Lianne A. Sheppard, PhD, MSc

Assistant Chair, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences
Professor, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences (Primary department)
Professor, Biostatistics
Dr. Sheppard is Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences and Professor of Biostatistics. She has a Ph.D. in biostatistics. Her interests center on observational study methods, epidemiology, and the health effects of occupational and environmental exposures. She is principal investigator of a NIH-funded training grant called Biostatistics, Epidemiologic & Bioinformatic Training in Environmental Health. She leads the biostatistical cores for several projects and collaborates with DEOHS faculty on air pollution cohort studies, identifying the effects of multipollutant exposures, and studying manganese exposures. She is a member of the Epidemiology editorial board, the Health Effects Institute Review Committee, and the EPA Scientific Advisory Board for Toxicological Review of Libby Amphibole Asbestos.

Research Interests

  • Air pollution health effect and occupational epidemiological studies, estimation of health effects from environmental and occupational exposures, exposure modeling, measurement error in health effects studies, incorporating group information in epidemiologic studies
  • KEYWORDS: Cardiovascular disease and traffic, Diesel exhaust, Environmental epidemiology; Noise; Occupational and environmental medicine; Occupational exposure; Environmental exposure; Biostatistics

In the News

Teaching interests

Statistical and research practice to enhance scientific research. Example courses:

ENVH 583: Environmental Health Reading: Developing a Thesis Proposal

BIOST 590: Statistical consulting

BIOST 578: Ethics for Biostatisticians


PhD, Biostatistics, University of Washington, 1992
MSc, Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University, 1985


Studies of air pollution exposures and their effects on health. These include MESA Air to assess the effect of long-term exposure to air pollution and the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis, the DISCOVER Center to study the mechanistic relationship between cardiovascular disease and traffic related air pollution, and the UW CCAR to study the cardiovascular health effects of near roadway pollution.

Statistical methods in environmental and occupational epidemiology.

Selected Publications

a) Refereed Research Articles

  1. Self SG, Prentice RL, Iverson D, Henderson J, Thompson DJ, Insull W, Gorbach SL, Clifford C, Goldman S, Urban N, Sheppard L, Greenwald P:  Statistical design of the Women's Health Trial.  Controlled Clin Trials 9:119-136, 1988.
  2. Fechter LD, Sheppard L, Young JS, Zeger S:  Sensory threshold estimation from a continuously graded response produced by reflex modification audiometry.  J  Acoust Soc Am 84:179-185, 1988.
  3. Prentice RL, Kakar F, Hursting S, Sheppard L, Klein R, Kushi LH:  Aspects of the rationale for the Women's Health Trial.  JNCI 80:802-814, 1988.
  4. Prentice RL, Sheppard L:  Validity of international, time trend, and migrant studies of dietary factors and disease risk.  Prev Med 18:167-179, 1989.
  5. Gorbach SL, Morrill-LaBrode A, Woods MW, Dwyer J, Selles W, Henderson M, Insull W, Goldman S, Thompson DJ, Clifford C, Sheppard L:  Changes in food patterns during a low‑fat-fat dietary intervention in women.  J Am Diet Assoc 6:802-809, 1990.
  6. Prentice RL, Sheppard L:  Dietary fat and cancer:  Consistency of the epidemiologic data, and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption.  Cancer Causes Control 1:81-97, 1990.
  7. Prentice RL, Sheppard L:  Dietary fat and cancer:  Rejoinder and discussion of research strategies.  Cancer Causes Control 2:53-58, 1991.
  8. Sheppard L, Kristal AR, Kushi LH:  Weight loss in women participating in a randomized trial of low-fat diets.  Am J Clin Nutr 54:821-828, 1991.
  9. Prentice RL, Sheppard L:  Aggregate data studies of disease risk factors.  Biometrika 82:113-125, 1995.
  10. Sheppard L, Prentice RL:  On the reliability and precision of within and between population estimates of relative rate parameters.  Biometrics 51:853-863, 1995.
  11. Seixas N, Sheppard L:  Individual and grouped exposure assessment:  Maximizing accuracy and precision.  Scand J Work and Env 22:94-101, 1996.
  12. Tsuang D, Kukull W, Sheppard L, Barnhart R, Peskind E, Edland S, Schellenberg G, Larsen E, Raskin M:  Impact of sample selection on APOE E4 allele frequency:  A comparison of two Alzheimer's disease samples.  J Am Geriatrics Soc. 44:704-707, 1996.
  13. Sheppard L, Prentice RL, Rossing MA:  Design considerations for estimation of exposure effects on disease risk using aggregate data studies.  Stat in Med 15:1849-1858, 1996.
  14. Bowen J, Malter A, Sheppard L, Kukull W, McCormick W, Teri L, Larson E:  Predictors of mortality in patients diagnosed with dementia of the Alzheimer's type.  Neurology, 47:433-439, 1996.
  15. O'Meara ES, Kukull WA, Sheppard L, Bowen JD, McCormick WC, Teri L, Pfanschmidt, Thompson JD, Schellenberg GD, Larson EB: Head injury and risk of AD by apolipoprotein E genotype.  American Journal of Epidemiology 146:373-384, 1997.
  16. Barnhart S, Sheppard L, Balmes J, Beaudet N, Stover B:  Assessment of risks for acquiring tuberculosis in health care settings and the estimated benefits of engineering controls and mask respiratory protection.  Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 39:849-854, 1997.
  17. Seixas NS, Sanders J, Sheppard L, Yost M.G: Exposure assessment for acute injuries on construction sites: Conceptual development and pilot test.  Applied Occupational & Environmental Hygiene 13(5):304-312, 1998.
  18. Pappas GP, Brodkin CA, Sheppard L, Balmes J, Horike M, Barnhart S: Radiographic estimation of total lung capacity in patients with respiratory disease. CHEST. 114:513-520, 1998.
  19. Sheppard L, Levy D, Norris G, Larson TV, Koenig JQ: Effects of ambient air pollution on non-elderly asthma hospital admissions in Seattle, Washington, 1987-1994.  Epidemiology. 10:23-30, 1999.
  20. Schwartz J, Norris G, Larson T, Sheppard L, Claiborne C, Koenig J: Episodes of high coarse particle concentrations are not associated with increased mortality.  Environ Health Perspect 107:339-342, 1999.
  21. Norris G, YoungPong SN, Koenig JQ, Larson TV, Sheppard L, Stout JW: An association between asthma emergency department visits for children and fine particles in Seattle.  Environ Health Perspect 107:489-493, 1999.
  22. Clark CM, Sheppard L, Fillenbaum GG, Galasko D, Morris JC, Koss G, Mohs R, Heyman A, the CERAD investigators: Variability in annual mini-mental state score in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease: A clinical perspective of data from CERAD.  Arch Neurol 56:857-862, 1999.
  23. Norris G, Larson T, Koenig J, Claiborn C, Sheppard L, Finn D: Asthma aggravation, combustion and stagnant air.  Thorax 55:466-470, 2000.
  24. Moolgavkar S, Hazelton W, Leubeck G, Levy D, Sheppard L: Air pollution, pollens and respiratory admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in King County.  Inhalation Toxicology 12(Supplement 1):157-171, 2000
  25. Lumley T, Sheppard L: Assessing seasonal confounding and model selection bias in air pollution epidemiology using positive and negative control analysis.  Environmetrics 11:705-717, 2000.
  26. Sheppard L, Damian D: Estimating short-term PM effects accounting for surrogate exposure measurements from ambient monitors.  Environmetrics 11:675-687, 2000.  DOI: 10.1002/1099-095X(200011/12)11:6<675::AID-ENV441>3.0.CO;2-M
  27. *Yu O, Sheppard L, Lumley T, Koenig JQ, Shapiro G: Effects of ambient carbon monoxide and atmospheric particles on asthma symptoms: Results from the CAMP air pollution ancillary study.  Environ Health Perspect 108: 1209-1214, 2000.   PMID: 11133403
  28. *Guthrie K, Sheppard L: Overcoming biases and misconceptions in ecological studies.  J Royal Stat Soc Series A 164:141-154, 2001. DOI: 10.1111/1467-985X.00193
  29. Levy D, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Kaufman J, Checkoway H: Referent selection in case-crossover analyses of health effects of air pollution.  Epidemiology 12:186-192, 2001.
  30. Levy D, Sheppard L, Checkoway H, Kaufman J, Lumley T, Koenig J, Siscovick D: A case-crossover analysis of particulate matter air pollution and out-of-hospital primary cardiac arrest.  Epidemiology 12:193-199, 2001.  PMID: 11246580
  31. Sheppard L, Levy D, Checkoway H.  Correcting for the effects of location and atmospheric conditions on air pollution exposure analysis in a case-crossover study.  J of Exp Anal and Environ Epi 11:86-96, 2001.  PMID: 11409009
  32. Claiborn C, Larson T, Sheppard L.  Testing the Metals Hypothesis in Spokane. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplement -- Monograph on Environmental Air Toxics: Role in Asthma Occurrence? (supplement 4): 547-552, 2002.
  33. *Guthrie K, Sheppard L, Wakefield J.  A hierarchical aggregate model with spatially correlated disease rates.  Biometrics 58:898-905, 2002.  PMID: 12495144
  34. Sheppard L: Insights on information and bias in group-level studies.  Biostatistics 4:265-278, 2003.  PMID: 12925521
  35. Caine D, Knutzen K, Howe W, Keeler L, Sheppard L, Hendrichs D, Fast J: A three-year epidemiological study of injuries affecting young female gymnasts.  Physical Therapy in Sport 4:10-23, 2003.
  36. Sullivan J, Ishikawa N, Sheppard L, Siscovick L, Checkoway H, Kaufman J.  Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter and Primary Cardiac Arrest in Individuals with and without Clinically Recognized Heart Disease.  American Journal of Epidemiology 157:501-509, 2003.  PMID: 12631539
  37. Liu L-JS, Box M, Kalman D, Kaufman J, Koenig J, Larson T, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Wallace L.  Exposure assessment of particulate matter for susceptible subpopulations in Seattle, WA.  Environmental Health Perspectives 11: 909-918, 2003.  PMID: 12782491
  38. Kim E, Larson TV, Hopke PK, Sheppard L, Slaughter JC, Claiborn C.  Source identification of PM2.5 in an arid northwest US city by positive matrix factorization.  Atmospheric Research 66: 291-305, 2003.  DOI: 10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00025-5
  39. Sheppard L.  Reanalysis of “Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Nonelderly Asthma Hospital Admissions in Seattle, Washington, 1987-1994”.  Health Effects Institute. 227-230, 2003.
  40. Dominici F, Sheppard L, Clyde M.  Health Effects of Air Pollution: A Statistical Review.  International Statistical Review, 71:243-276, 2003.  DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-5823.2003.tb00195.x
  41. Slaughter C, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Koenig J, Shapiro GS. Effects of ambient air pollution on symptom severity and medication usage in children with asthma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 91:346-353, 2003.  PMID: 14582813
  42. Allen R, Larson T, Sheppard L, Wallace L, Liu L-JS.  Use of real-time light scattering data to estimate the contribution of infiltrated and indoor-generated particles to indoor air.  Environmental Science & Technology, 37:3484-3492, 2003.  PMID: 12953856
  43. Seixas N, Sheppard L, Neitzel R: Comparison of task-based and full-shift strategies for noise exposure assessment.  Am Ind Hyg Assoc Journal, 64: 823-829, 2003.  PMID: 14674795
  44. Reeb-Whitaker CK, Seixas NS, Sheppard L, Neitzel R.  Accuracy of task recall for epidemiological exposure assessment to construction noise.  Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 61:135-142, 2004.
  45. Turner JA, Franklin G, Fulton-Kehoe D, Egan K, Wickizer TM, Lymp JF, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD.  Prediction of chronic disability in work-related musculoskeletal disorders:  A prospective, population-based study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2004, 2004 May 24;5:14.  PMID: 15157280
  46. Goss CH, Newsom SA, Schildcrout JS, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD.  Effect of ambient air pollution on pulmonary exacerbations and lung function in cystic fibrosis.  Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2004, 169:816-821  PMID: 14718248
  47. Seixas NS, Kujawa S, Norton S, Sheppard L, Neitzel R, Slee A.  Predictors of hearing threshold levels and distortion product otoacoustic emissions among young adults.  Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2004, 61:899-907.  PMID: 15477283
  48. Allen R, Wallace L, Larson TV, Sheppard L, Liu L-JS. Estimated hourly personal exposures to ambient and non-ambient particulate matter among sensitive populations in Seattle, Washington. J Air Waste Management Association, 2004, 54:1197-1211.  PMID: 15468672
  49. Sullivan J, Sheppard L, Schreuder A, Ishikawa N, Siscovick D, Kaufman J.  Short-Term Fine PM Exposure and Onset of Myocardial Infarction in a Community-Based Myocardial Infarction Treatment Trial.  Epidemiology, 2005, 16:41-8.  PMID: 15613944
  50. **Janes H, Sheppard L, Lumley T.  Overlap bias in the case-crossover design, with application to air pollution exposures.  Statistics in Medicine, 2005, 24:285-300.  PMID: 15546133
  51. **Slaughter JC, Kim E, Sheppard L, Sullivan JH, Larson TV, Claiborn C.  Association between particulate matter and emergency room visits, hospital admissions and mortality in Spokane, Washington.  J Exp Analysis and Env Epi. 2005, 15:153-159.   PMID: 15187986
  52. Seixas NS, Goldman B, Sheppard L, Neitzel R, Norton S, Kujawa S.   Prospective Noise Induced Changes to Hearing Among Construction Industry Apprentices.  Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2005, 62:309-17.  PMID: 15837852
  53. Sheppard L.  Acute air pollution effects:  Consequences of exposure distribution and measurements.  Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 2005, 68: 1127-35.  PMID: 16024492
  54. Sheppard L, Slaughter C, Schildcrout J, Liu L-JS, Lumley T.  Exposure and measurement contributions to estimates of acute air pollution effects.  Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 2005, 15:366-76.  PMID: 15602584
  55. Seixas N, Neitzel R, Sheppard L, Goldman B.  Alternative metrics for noise exposure among construction workers.  Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2005, 49:493-502.  PMID: 15797894
  56. **Janes H, Sheppard L, Lumley T.  Assessing the Health Effects of Air Pollution Using the Case-Crossover Design.  Epidemiology, 2005, 16:717-26.  (see also accompanying editorial pp 715-716)  PMID: 16222160
  57. Schreuder A, Larson TV, Sheppard L, Claiborn CS.  Ambient woodsmoke and associated respiratory emergency department visits in Spokane, WA.  International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2006, 12: 147-153.  PMID: 16722195
  58. Stover BD, Turner JA, Franklin G, Gluck JV, Fulton-Kehoe D, Sheppard L, Wickizer TM, Kaufman J, Egan K.  Factors associated with early opioid prescription among workers with low back injuries.  Journal of Pain, 2006, 7: 718-725.  PMID: 17018332
  59. *Goldman B, Sheppard L, Kujawa SG, Seixas NS.  Modeling distortion product otoacoustic emission input/output functions using segmented regression.  Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 2006;120(5):2764-76.  PMID: 17139737
  60. **Schildcrout JS, Sheppard L, Lumley TS, Slaughter JC, Koenig JQ, Shapiro GG.  Ambient Air Pollution and Asthma Exacerbations in Children: An Eight City Analysis.  American Journal of Epidemiology, 2006 Sep 15;164(6):505-17.  PMID: 16798793
  61. Turner JA, Franklin G, Fulton-Kehoe D, Sheppard L, Wickizer TM, Wu R, Gluck JV, Egan K.  Worker recovery expectations and fear-avoidance predict work disability in a population-based workers' compensation back pain sample.  Spine, 2006 Mar 15;31(6):682-9.  PMID: 16540874
  62. Miller KA, Siscovick DS, Sheppard L, Shepherd K, Sullivan JH, Anderson G, Kaufman JD.  Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular events in women, New England Journal of Medicine, 356:447-458, 2007.  PMID: 17267905
  63. Carlsten C,  Kaufman JD, Peretz A, Trenga CA, Sheppard L, Sullivan JH.  Coagulation markers in healthy human subjects exposed to diesel exhaust. Thrombosis Research 2007;120(6):849-55.  PMID: 17321570
  64. Turner JA, Franklin G, Fulton-Kehoe D, Sheppard L, Wickizer TM, Wu  R, Gluck JV, Egan K, Stover B.  Early predictors of chronic work disability associated with carpal tunnel syndrome:  A longitudinal workers’ compensation cohort study.  American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007 Jul;50(7):489-500.  PMID: 17477354
  65. **Haneuse S, Wakefield J, Sheppard L.     The interpretation of exposure effect estimates in chronic air pollution studies.  Statistics in Medicine 2007, 26:16: 3172-3187.  PMID: 17225212
  66. Mills DM, Feeney MP, Drake EJ, Folsom RC, Sheppard L, Seixas N.  Developing standards for distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements.  J Acoust Soc Am 2007, 122(4): 2203-2214.  PMID: 17902856
  67. Allen R, Wallace L, Larson T, Sheppard L, Liu L-J S.  Evaluation of the Recursive Model Approach for estimating Particulate Matter Infiltration Efficiencies using Continuous Light Scattering Data.  Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 2007 Aug;17(5):468-77.
  68. Fulton-Kehoe D, Stover B, Turner JA, Sheppard L, Gluck J, Wickizer T, Franklin G.  Development of a Short Questionnaire to Predict Long-Term Disability.  J Occup Environ Med,2008 50:1042-1052.  PMID: 18784553
  69. **Janes H, Sheppard L, Shepherd K.  Statistical Analysis of Air Pollution Panel Studies: An Illustration.  Annals of Epidemiology, 2008 Oct;18(10):792-802.  PMID: 18922395
  70. Turner JA, Franklin G, Fulton-Kehoe D, Sheppard L, Stover B, Wu R, Gluck JV, Wickizer TM.  ISSLS prize winner: Early Predictors of Chronic Work Disability:  A Prospective, Population-Based Study of Workers with Back Injuries.  Spine, 2008 Dec 1;33(25):2809-18.  PMID: 19050587
  71. Neitzel R, Daniell W, Sheppard L, Davies H, Seixas N.  Comparison of perceived and quantitative measures of occupational noise exposure.  Annals Occupational Hygiene, 2009 Jan;53(1):41-54.  PMID: 18984805
  72. Allen R, Criqui M, Diez Roux AV, Allison M, Detrano R, Shea S, Wong N, Sheppard L, Stukovsky KH, Kaufman JD.  Fine particulate matter air pollution, proximity to traffic, and aortic atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  Epidemiology, 2009 Mar;20(2):254-64.  PMID: 19129730
  73. Van Hee VC, Adar SD, Szpiro AA, Barr RG, Bluemke DA, Diez Roux AV, Gill EA, Sheppard L, Kaufman JD.  Exposure to traffic and left ventricular mass and function: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2009 179:827-34.  PMID: 19164703
  74. *Kim SY, Sheppard L, Kim H.  Health effects of long-term air pollution: influence of exposure prediction methods.  Epidemiology 2009 May;20(3):442-50.  PMID: 19289962
  75. Cohen MA, Adar SA, Allen RW, Avol E, Curl CL, Gould T, Hardie D, Ho A, Kinney P, Larson TV, Sampson P, Sheppard L, Stukovsky KD, Swan SS, Liu L-JS, Kaufman JD.  Approach to estimating participant pollutant exposures in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).  Environmental Science & Technology, 2009, 43:4687-4693  PMID: 19673252
  76. Vedal S, Hannigan MP, Dutton SJ, Miller SL, Milford JB, Rabinovitch N, Kim S-Y, Sheppard L. The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) Study: Overview and Early Findings, Atmospheric Environment, 2009, 48:1666-1673.  DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.12.017
  77. Edelson J, Neitzel R, Meischke H, Daniell W, Sheppard L, Stover B, Seixas N.  Predictors of hearing protection use in construction workers.  Ann Occup Hyg. 2009 Aug;53(6):605-15. Epub 2009 Jun 16. PMID: 19531807
  78. Van Hee VC, Adar SD, Szpiro AA, Barr RG, Diez Roux A, Bluemke DA, Sheppard L, Gill EA, Bahrami H, Wassel C, Sale MM, Siscovick DS, Rotter JI, Rich SS, Kaufman JD.  Common Genetic Variation, Residential Proximity to Traffic Exposure, and Left Ventricular Mass: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.  Environ Health Perspect. 2010 118:962–969.  .  PMID: 20308035
  79. Rudra CB, Williams MA, Sheppard L, Koenig JQ, Schiff MA, Frederick IO, Dills R.  Whole blood carboxyhemoglobin in relation to ambient carbon monoxide exposure estimated using land use regression.  American Journal of Epidemiology, 2010 171:942–951.  PMID: 20308199.
  80. *Szpiro AS, Sampson PD, Sheppard L, Lumley T, Adar SD, Kaufman J.  Predicting intra-urban variation in air pollution with complex spatio-temporal dependencies.  Environmetrics, 2010, 21: 606–631.  DOI: 10.1002/env.1014  (See also
  81. Seixas N, Neitzel R, Stover B, Sheppard L, Daniell B, Edelson J, Meishchke H.  A multi-component intervention to promote hearing protector use among construction workers.  International Journal of Audiology 2011 Mar;50 Suppl 1:S46-56. Epub 2010 Nov 24.  PMID: 21091403.
  82. *Szpiro AA, Sheppard L, Lumley T.  Efficient measurement error correction with spatially misaligned data.  Biostatistics, 2011, 12:610-23. [Epub 2011 Jan 20]  PMID:  21252080.
  83. Rudra CB, Williams MA, Sheppard L, Koenig JQ, Schiff MA.  Ambient carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter in relation to preeclampsia and preterm delivery in western Washington State.  Environmental Health Perspectives, 2011 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]   PMID:    21262595
  84. Sheppard L, Burnett RT, Szpiro AA, Kim S-Y, Jerrett M, Pope CA III, Brunekreef B.  Confounding and exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology, Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 2011, March 23.  [Epub ahead of print]. 
  85. Neitzel RL, Daniell WE, Sheppard L, Davies HW, Seixas NS.  Improving Exposure Estimates by Combining Exposure Information, Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 2011 Apr 5. [Epub ahead of print]  PMID:  21467124
  86. Sampson PD, Szpiro AA, Sheppard L, Lindström J, Kaufman JD.  Pragmatic Estimation of a Spatio-Temporal Air Quality Model with Irregular Monitoring Data, Atmospheric Environment, 2011, 45:6593-6606.  [Epub ahead of print May 7]. 
  87. Neitzel RL, Daniell WE, Sheppard L, Davies HW, Seixas NS.  Evaluation and Comparison of Three Exposure Assessment Techniques, J Occup Environ Hyg. 2011 May;8(5):310-23.  PMID:  21491323
  88. *Mercer LD, Szpiro AA, Sheppard L, Lindström J, Adar SD, Allen RD, Avol EL, Oron AP, Larson T, Liu LJS, Kaufman JD.  Predicting concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in Los Angeles, CA using universal kriging for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), Atmospheric Environment, 2011 45:4412-4420.  [Epub 26 May 2011] PMID:  21808599
  89. Szpiro AA, Paciorek C, Sheppard L.  Does more accurate exposure prediction necessarily improve health effect estimates?  Epidemiology, 2011, 22:680-685. [Epub Jun 29 2011].  PMID: 21716114
  90. Noonan CW, Ward TJ, Navidi W, Sheppard L.  Biomass smoke and children’s health: Evidence that an intervention targeting wood combustion sources benefits rural communities.  Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2012, in press.  [Epub Feb 1 2012].
  91. In Press

  92. Allen RW, Adar SD, Avol E, Cohen M, Curl C, Larson T, Liu LJS, Sheppard L, Kaufman J.  Modeling the residential infiltration of outdoor PM2.5 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), Environmental Health Perspectives, in press.
  93. 92.Kaufman J, Adar S, Allen R, Astor B, Barr RG, Burke G, Budoff M, Casillas A, Cohen MA, Daviglus, Diez-Roux A, Jacobs D, Kronmal R, Larson T, Liu LJS, Lumley T, O’Leary D, Sampson P, Sheppard L, Siscovick D, Tracy R.  A prospective study of particulate air pollution exposures, subclinical atherosclerosis, and clinical cardiovascular disease.  The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).  American Journal of Epidemiology, in press.

*indicates research done as a student or postdoctoral fellow supervised by Dr. Sheppard

** indicates research done as a student research assistant or independent study project supervised by Dr. Sheppard

b) Other Refereed Scholarly Publications (proceedings, policy papers and reviews, book chapters)

  1. Burbacher T, Shen D, Grant K, Sheppard L, Damian D, Ellis S, Liberato N.  Reproductive and offspring developmental effects following maternal inhalation exposure to methanol in nonhuman primates.  Part I: Methanol disposition and reproductive toxicity in adult females.  Health Effects Institute Research Report # 089, Boston, MA, 1999.
  2. Sheppard L, Kaufman J: Sorting out the role of air pollutants in asthma initiation. Epidemiology 11:100-101, 2000.
  3. Checkoway H, Levy D, Sheppard L, Kaufman K, Koenig J, Siscovick D.  A case-crossover analysis of fine particulate matter air pollution and out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest.  Health Effects Institute Research Report # 099, Boston, MA, 2000.
  4. Lumley T, Sheppard L.  Time series analyses of air pollution and health:  Straining at gnats while swallowing camels?  Epidemiology 14:13-14, 2003.
  5. Sheppard, L.  Design issues for epidemiologic studies of speciated data.  Health Effects Institute. 2004.
  6. Noonan CW, Ward TJ, Navidi W, Sheppard L, Bergauff M, Palmer C.  Assessing the Impact of a Wood Stove Replacement Program on Air Quality and Children’s Health.  Health Effects Institute Research Report # 162, Boston, MA, 2011.

c) Books and Book Chapters

  1. Prentice RL, Sheppard L:  Feasibility and importance of clinical trials of a low-fat diet to reduce cancer risk.  In:  Recent Progress in Research on Nutrition and Cancer (CJ Mettlin and K Aoki, eds.).  New York:  Wiley-Liss, Inc., 1990, pp. 205-215.
  2. Sheppard L:  Ecologic Study Design.  In El-Shaarawi, A.H. Pierorcsh W.W. (eds) Encyclopedia of Environmetrics.  New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002, Volume 2, pp 602-606.
  3. Sheppard L:  Data analysis.  In Baker D, Nieuwenhijsen MJ,  (eds) Environmental Epidemiology: Study Methods and Application.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2008.

d) Other Non-refereed Published Scholarly Publications

  1. Sheppard L, Prentice RL:  What if Americans ate less fat?  Letter to the Editor.  JAMA 726:361-362, 1992.
  2. Sheppard L:  Review of geographical and environmental epidemiology:  Methods for small-area studies.   (P Elliott, J Cuzick, D English and R Stern, eds.).  Statistics in Medicine 13:884, 1994.
  3. Sheppard L, Lumley T: Comments on “Combining evidence on air pollution and daily mortality from the 20 largest U.S. cities: a hierarchical modeling strategy” by Francesca Dominici, Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger.  JRSSA 163:297, 2000.
  4. Smith R, Guttorp P, Sheppard L, Lumley T, Ishikawa N.  Comments on the Criteria Document for Particulate Matter Air Pollution.  NRCSE Technical Report No. 066.  July 25, 2001.  Http://
  5. Sheppard L.  Comments on the papers by Gelman et al. and Wakefield and Salway.  JRSSA 164: 139, 2001.
  6. Sheppard L, Wakefield JC.  Discussion of  “Statistical Issues in Studies of the Long-term Effects of Air Pollution:  The Southern California Children's Health Study” by Berhane, Gauderman, Stram and Thomas.  Statistical Science, 19: 438-441, 2004.
  7. Sheppard L.  Discussion of “Ecological Inference for 2 x 2 Tables” by Jon Wakefield.  JRSSA, 167: 439, 2004.
  8. **Janes H, Sheppard L, Lumley T.  Letter to the editor regarding “Do Subject Characteristics Modify the Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Daily Mortality Among the Elderly?”  JOEM, 2005, 47:543.
  9. Sullivan JH, Sheppard L, Schreuder AB, Kaufman J.  Response to Kunzli N, Schindler C. “It’s time to discuss the relevant exposure term and power.”  Epidemiology, 2005, 16:593.
  10. Vedal, S, Sheppard L.  “Ambient Ozone and Lung Fuction.”  Letter to the editor regarding “Chronic exposure to ambient ozone and lung function in young adults”  Epidemiology, 2006, May;17(3):343-4.
  11. Lumley T, **Janes H, Sheppard L.  Letter to the editor regarding “Cox models for ecological time series data?”  Environmental Health Perspectives, 2006 December; 114(12): A690–A691.
  12. *Szpiro A, Sheppard L, Sampson P, Kim SY.  Lettter to the editor:  Validating National Kriging Exposure Estimation.  Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007 Jul;115(7):A338.
  13. Szpiro A, Sheppard L.  Discussion of “Geostatistical inference under preferential sampling” by Diggle P, Menezes R, Su T.  JRSSC: Applied Statistics 2010, 59:224-226.
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