David A Kalman, PhD

Professor, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences (Primary department)
David Kalman is a professor in the Environmental Health program. He is a chemist by training, earning his doctorate from the University of Washington in 1978. He joined the faculty in that year and has held numerous positions including director of the Environmental Health Laboratory and director of one graduate degree program and (currently) director of undergraduate degree education. His research focuses on chemical issues, such as hazardous properties of materials, environmental fate and transport, environmental quality assessment, hazard management, and occupational and community exposure assessment, especially using biomarkers of exposure.

He has participated in several national peer reviews of biomarker related issues, most recently regarding dioxins and Vietnam War veterans. Active research areas include assessment of exposures and effects of arsenic in drinking water, diet, and soil.

Contact Information

Seattle, WA 98195-

Research Interests

  • Environmental chemistry. Detection and fate of chemical hazards in natural and man-made environments.
  • Asbestos. Biomarkers. Cholinesterase monitoring. Drinking water. Exposure assessment. Global occupational health. Heavy metals analysis in soil. Industrial chemistry. Lead paint. Occupational exposure. Polycyclic hydrocarbons. Soil sampling. Solvents (toxicology & health effects). Trace contaminants. Water quality. Wood smoke.

In the News


PhD, Chemistry, University of Washington, 1978


1. Characterization of population exposures to arsenic via drinking water
Together with colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley several studies are ongoing to assess exposures, health status, and possible mechanistic or genetic susceptibility aspects of water-derived arsenicism. Samples are currently being received from California, Mexico, Chile, Argentina, India, and Bangladesh.

Selected Publications

Research Articles in Refereed Journals

  1. Hillemann CL, Van Hecke GR, Peak SR, Winther JB, Rudat MA, Kalman DA, White ML.  Physical studies of homologous trans-4-ethyoxy41-n-Alkanoyl oxyaz-benzenes.  Jour Phys Chem 1975; 79:1566.
  2. Kalman DA, Dills R, Perera C, DeWalle F.  On-column cryogenic trapping of sorbed organics for determination by capillary gas chromatography.  Anal Chem 1980; 52:1993-1994.
  3. DeWalle FB, Kalman DA, Dills R, Norman D, Chian ESK, Giabbai M, Ghosal M.  Presence of phenolic compounds in sewage, effluent, and sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants.  Water Sci Tech 1982; 14:143-150.
  4. Kalman DA.  Optimized injection for determination of free phenols by gas chromatography using fused silica columns.  J High Res Chrom 1983; 6:564-565.
  5. Kalman DA, Horstman S.  Persistence of chlorinated phenols in exposed woodworkers.  Clinical Toxicol 1984; 20:343-358.
  6. Kalman DA.  Determination of pentachlorophenol and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol in human urine by high resolution gas chromatography.  J Chrom Sci 1984; 22(10):452-455.
  7. Kalman DA, Schumacher R, Covert D, Eaton DL.  Biological availability of lead in a paint aerosol.  I.  Physical and chemical characterization of a lead paint aerosol.  Toxicol Lett 1984; 22:301-306.
  8. Eaton DL, Kalman D, Garvey D, Morgan M, Omenn GS.  Biological availability of lead in a paint aerosol.  II.  Absorption, distribution and excretion of intratracheally instilled lead paint particles in the rat.  Toxicol Lett 1984; 22:307-313.
  9. Wallace, DM, Kalman DA, Bird, TD.  Hazardous lead release from glazed dinnerware:  a cautionary note.  Sci Tot Env 1985; 44:289-292.
  10. Kalman DA, Voorhees KJ, Osborne D, Einhorn IN.  Production of a bicyclophosphate neurotoxic agent during pyrolysis of synthetic lubricant oil.  J Fire Sci 1985; 3:322-329.
  11. Kalman DA.  Survey Analysis of Volatile Organics Released from Plastics Under Thermal Stress.  Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1986; 47:270-275.
  12. Pepich BV, Callis J,  Burns D, Gouterman M, and Kalman D. Capillary Gas Chromatography / Pulsed Supersonic Jet  Fluorescence Excitation Spectroscopy for the Identification of Methylanthracenes in a Complex Environmental Sample,  Analytical Chemistry 1986;  2825-2830.
  13. Kleinman G, Horstman S, Kalman DA, MacKenzie J. and Stansel, D.  Industrial hygiene, chemical  and biological assessments of exposures to a chlorinated phenolic sapstain control agent.   Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1986; 47, 731-741.
  14. Kalman,  David A., Goodman,  Gary E., Omenn, Gilbert S., Bellamy, Garland  and Rollins, Brooke.  Micronutrient assay for cancer prevention trials: Serum retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene with the use of high performance liquid chromatography. J. National Cancer Institute, 1987; 79, 975-982.
  15. Boatman, E.S., Covert, D, Kalman, D., Luchtel, D., and Omenn, G.S., Physical,  morphological and chemical studies of dusts derived from the machining of composite epoxy materials. Environmental Research, 1987.
  16. Eaton, DL, Monroe, DH, Bellamy, GM and Kalman, DA.   Identification of a novel dihydroxy metabolite of aflatoxin B1 produced in vitro and in vivo in rats and mice.  Res. Chem. Toxicol.,1988; 1, 108.
  17. Kalman, David A., Quantitation of arsenic species in urine for exposure assessment studies.  J. Res. National Bureau Standards, 1988; 93, 315-317.
  18. Montgomery, D.D. and Kalman, D. A. Indoor / outdoor air quality: reference pollutant concentrations in complaint-free residences. Applied Industrial Hygiene, 4 ,17-20, 1988.
  19. Horstman, SB, Rossner, A., Kalman, D.A., and Morgan, M., Penetration of Pentachlorophenol  and Tetrachlorophenol Through Human Skin,  J. Environ. Sci. Health , 1989, A24, 229-242.
  20. Polissar, L, Coble, KL, Kalman, DA, Hughes, JP, van Belle, G, Covert, DS, Burbacher, TM, Bolgiano, D, and Mottet, NK., Pathways of human exposure to arsenic in a community surrounding a copper smelter, Environmental Research, 1990; 53, 29-47.
  21. Kalman, David A., Hughes, J., van Belle, G., Burbacher, T., Bolgiano, D, Coble, KL, Mottet, NK, and Polissar, L.,  Distribution of urinary arsenic species for individuals living in an arsenic- contaminated community,  Environmental Health Perspectives, 1990; 89, 145-151.
  22. Atallah, Raja and Kalman, David A. On-line photooxidation for the determination of organoarsenic compounds by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with continuous arsine generation.   Talanta, 1991;  38, 167-173.
  23. Russell L. Dills, Stuart D. Kent, Harvey Checkoway and David A. Kalman,  Quantification of Volatile Solvents in Blood by Static Headspace Analysis.   Talanta, 1991; 38, 365-374.
  24. Russell L. Dills, Ronald L. Wu, Harvey Checkoway and David A. Kalman,  Capillary Gas Chromatographic Method for Mandelic and Phenylglyoxylic Acid in Urine.   Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 1991;  62, 603-611.
  25. Daniell, W., Kalman, D.A., Stebbins, A., and Horstman, S.., The contributions of skin and inhalation exposure to solvent uptake measured by urinary metabolites, Am Ind Hyg Assoc J, 1992;  53, 124-129.
  26. Atallah, R.H., and Kalman, D.A., Selective determination of inorganic and methyl mercury in tissues by continuous flow cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, Analytical Toxicology, 17, March/April 1993.
  27. Morgan MS, Dills RL, Kalman DA.  Evaluation of stable isotope-labeled probes in the study of solvent pharmacokinetics in human subjects.  Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health.  65:S139- S142, 1993.
  28. Russell L. Dills, Walter S. Ackerlund, David A. Kalman and Michael S. Morgan, Blood/air partition coefficient determinations: automation and improvement of the Equilibrium Partitioning in Closed Systems Method.  Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 3, 471-489, 1993.
  29. Russell L. Dills, Walter S. Ackerlund, David A. Kalman and Michael S. Morgan, Inter-individual variability in blood/air partitioning of volatile organic compounds and correlation with blood chemistry.  Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology, 4, 229-245, 1994.
  30. Dills, R.L., Enderlein, C., Ackerlund, W.S., Kalman, D.A., and Morgan, M.S.  Investigation of the relationship between chemical concentration and the blood/air partition coefficient.  Int. J. Exp. Anal. Environ. Epi. 4: 343–353, 1994.
  31. Warner, Marcella L Warner, Lee A. Moore, Martyn T. Smith, David A. Kalman,  Elinor Fanning, and Allan H. Smith.  Increased micronuclei in exfoliated bladder cells of persons who chronically ingest arsenic-contaminated water in Nevada.  Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention, 3: 583-590, 1995.
  32. NJ Simcox, RA Fenske, S Woltz, I-C Lee and D Kalman. Pesticides in housedust and soil: exposure pathways for children of agricultural families.  Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, (12): 1126-1134, 1995.
  33. Moore, LE, Smith, AH, Hopenhayn-Rich, C, Biggs, ML, Warner, ML, Kalman, DA and Smith, MT.  Increased micronuclei found in two populations environmentally exposed to arsenic.   Clinical Chemistry, 1995; 41: 1915-1917.
  34. Hopenhayn-Rich, C, Biggs, ML, Smith, AH, Kalman, DA, and Moore, LE. Methylation study in a population environmentally exposed to high arsenic drinking water. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104: 620—628 (1996).
  35. Moore, LE, Warner, M, Smith, AH, Kalman, D, and Smith, MT.  Use of the fluorescent micronucleus assay to detect the genotoxic effects of radiation and arsenic exposure in exfoliated human epithelial cells.  Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 27: 176-184 (1996).
  36. Pierce, CH, Dills, RD, Morgan, MS, Nothstein, GL, Shen, DD, Kalman, DA . Interindividual differences in 2H8-toluene toxicokinetics assessed by a semi-empirical physiologically-based model.  Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 139: 49-61 (1996).
  37. CH Pierce, RL Dills, GW Silvey, DA Kalman. Human blood- and adipose-air partition coefficients for aromatic solvents. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 22:112-118 (1996).
  38. Hopenhayn-Rich, C, Biggs M L.,  Kalman D A.,  Moore L E., Smith A H.  Arsenic methylation patterns before and after change from high to lower arsenic water supply.  Environmental Health Perspectives, 104(11): 1200-1207 (1996).
  39. Biggs, ML, Kalman, DA, Moore, LE, Hopenhayn-Rich, C, Smith, MT, Smith, AH.  Relationship of urinary arsenic to intake estimates and a biomarker of effect, bladder cell micronuclei.  Mutation Research 386, 185-195 (1997)
  40. Pierce, CH, Dills, RL, Morgan, MS, Lewandowski, TA, Wessels, MA, Shen, DD, and Kalman, DA.  Estimation of background exposure to toluene using a physiologically-based model.  Journal of Occupational Health, 39: 130-137 (1997).
  41. Yuknavage, KL, Fenske,R, Kalman, DA, Keifer, M, Furlong, C.   Simulated dermal contamination with capillary samples and field cholinesterase biomonitoring. J. Toxicology and Environmental Health, 51(1): 35-55 (1997).
  42. Moore, LE, Smith, AH, Hopenhayn-Rich, C, Biggs, ML, Kalman, DA, Smith, MT.  Micronuclei in exfoliated bladder cells among individuals chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water. Cancer Epidemiol, Biomarkers and Prevention, 6(1): 31-36 (1997).
  43. Biggs, ML, Kalman, DA, Moore, LE, Hopenhayn-Rich, C, Smith, MT and Smith, AH.  Relationship of urinary arsenic to intake estimates and a biomarker of effect, bladder cell micronuclei.  Mutation Research, 386: 185-195, (1997).
  44. Dills, RL, Bellamy, GM, Kalman, DA.  Quantitation of o-, m-, and p-cresol and deuterated analogs in human urine by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.  In press,  J. Chromat. B, 703: 105-113 (1997).
  45. Moore, LE, Smith, AH, Hopenhayn-Rich, C, Biggs, ML, Kalman, DA and Smith, MT. Decrease in bladder cell micronucleus prevalence after intervention to lower the concentration of arsenic in drinkingwater. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 6(12):1051-6 (1997).
  46. Loewenherz C,  Fenske R A,  Simcox N J,  Bellamy G,  Kalman D. Biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide exposure among children of agricultural workers in central Washington State. Environmental Health Perspectives,  105(12):  1344-53 (1997).
  47. Pierce, CH, Dills, RD, Morgan, MS, Vicini, P, and DA Kalman.  Biological monitoring of controlled toluene exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 71: 433-444 (1998)
  48. CH Pierce, TA Lewandowski, RL Dills, MS Morgan, MA Wessells, DD Shen and DA Kalman.  A comparison of 1H8- and 1H8-toluene toxicokinetics in men. Xenobiotica, 29: 93-108 (1999).
  49. Paolo Vicini, Crispin H. Pierce, Russell L. Dills, Michael S. Morgan, and David A. Kalman.  Individual Prior Information in a Physiological Model of 2H8-Toluene Kinetics: An Empirical Bayesian Estimation Strategy. Risk Analysis 19, 1127-1134 (1999).
  50. Simcox NJ, Camp J, Kalman D, Stebbins A, Bellamy G, Lee I, Fenske R. Farmworker Exposure to Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues during Apple Thinning in Central Washington State. .  Am Ind Hyg Assoc J  60:752-761 (1999)
  51. Moate T, Lu C, Fenske RA, Hahne RMA, and Kalman D Improved cleanup and determination of dialkylphosphates in the urine of children exposed to organo-phosphorous pesticides.  J. Anal. Toxicol, 23: 230-236 (1999).
  52. Kim, E,  Kalman, D, and Larson, T.  Dry Deposition of Large, Airborne Particles onto a Surrogate Surface. Atmospheric Environment, 43(15).2387-2397 (2000).
  53. Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Kalman D, Simcox NJ, Keifer MC, Lu C, Allen E.  Biologically based pesticide dose estimates for children in an agricultural community.  Environ Health Perspect  108(6):515-520 (2000) [published on-line April 21, 2000]
  54. Lu C, Fenske RA, Simcox NJ, Kalman D.  Pesticide Exposure of children in an agricultural community: evidence of household proximity to farmland and take home exposure pathways.  Environ Res  84(3): November (2000).
  55. Liu LJS, Dills R, Paulsen M, Xiao H, Kalman D,  A passive monitor for measuring aldehydes. Epidemiolog,  10 (4): 300O (1999)
  56. Haque R, Chung J, Kalman D, Samanta S, Mitra S, Ghosh N, Santra A, Lahiri S, Guha, Mazumder D, Smith AH. Investigating susceptibility factors related to arsenic metabolism using a nested case-control design. Epidemiolog,11 (4): 522 (2000)
  57. Dills, RL, Zhu, X, Kalman, DA.  Measurement of urinary methoxyphenols and their use for biological monitoring of wood smoke exposure. Environmental Research, 85, 145-158 (2001) .
  58. Liu LJS, Dills RL, Paulsen M, Kalman DA,  Evaluation of media and derivatization chemistry for six aldehydes in a passive sampler.  Environmental Science & Technology,  35 (11): 2301-2308 (2001)
  59. Pierce, CH, Chen, Y, Dills, RL, Kalman, DA, Morgan, MS.  Toluene metabolites as biological indicators of exposure.  Toxicology Letters, 129, 65-76 (2002).
  60. Simpson C, Dills R, Paulsen M, Liu LJS, Kalman D. Use of methoxyphenols in biological and environmental monitoring of woodsmoke exposure., Epidemiology 13 (4): 134 ( 2002)
  61. Chung, JS, Kalman, DA, Moore, LE, Kosnett, MJ, Arroyo, AP, Beeris, M,    Mazumder, DNG, Hernandez, AL, Smith, AH.  Family correlations of arsenic methylation patterns in children and parents exposed to high concentrations of arsenic in drinking water. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, 729-733 (2002)
  62. Moore LE, Smith AH, Eng C, Kalman D, DeVries S, Bhargava V, Chew K, Moore D, Ferreccio C, Rey OA, Waldman FM.Arsenic-related chromosomal alterations in bladder cancer. Journal Of The National Cancer Institute 94 (22): 1688-1696 (2002)
  63. Liu LJS, Kalman D, Kaufman J, Koenig J, Larson T, Sheppard L, Lewtas J, Wallace L.  Characterization of particulate matter and co-pollutants exposures for compromised and healthy elderly adults in Seattle,WA, 1999-2001. Epidemiology 13 (4): 020 (2002)
  64. Simpson C, Gould T, Josephs N, Larson T, Claiborn C, Kalman D, Liu LJS.  Exposure assessment of forest fire smoke in susceptible adults, using urinary biomarkers and real-time air monitoring data. Epidemiology 13 (4): 136 (2002)
  65. Lewtas J, Myers S, Maykut N, Simpson C, Kalman D, Liu S, Larson T.  Attribution of particle exposure and risk to combustion source emission based on personal PAH exposure and urinary metabolites. Epidemiology 13 (4): 195 (2002)
  66. Haque R, Mazumder DNG, Samanta S, Ghosh N, Kalman D, Smith MM, Mitra S, Santra A, Lahiri S, Das S, De BK, Smith AH .  Arsenic in drinking water and skin lesions: Dose-response data from West Bengal, India.  Epidemiology 14 (2): 174-182. ( 2003)
  67. Hopenhayn, Claudia, Huang B, Christian, J, Peralta C, Ferreccio C, Atallah R, and Kalman D.  Profile of urinary arsenic metabolites during pregnancy, Environmental Health Perspectives, 111 (16): 1888-1891. (2003)
  68. Moore LE, Smith AH, Eng C, DeVries S, Kalman D, Bhargava V, Chew K, Ferreccio C, Rey OA, Hopenhayn C, Biggs ML, Bates MN, Waldman FM.   P53 alterations in bladder tumors from arsenic and tobacco exposed patients. Carcinogenesis 24 (11): 1785-1791. (2003)
  69. Simpson, C.D., Katz, B.S., Paulsen, M., Dills, R.L., Kalman, D.A. Determination of levoglucosan in atmospheric fine particulate. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 54 (6): 689-694. (2003).
  70. Liu, L-J. Sally, Box, M, Kalman D, Kaufman J, Koenig J, Larson T, Lumley T, Sheppard L, Wallace L.  Exposuire Assessment of Particulate Matter for Susceptible Populations in Seattle, WA.  Environ. Health Perspectives, 111 (7) 909-918 (2003).
  71. Bates MN, Rey OA, Biggs ML, Hopenhayn C, Moore LE, Kalman D, Steinmaus C, Smith AH. Case-control study of bladder cancer and exposure to arsenic in Argentina. American Journal of Epidemiology 159 (4): 381-389. (2004)
  72. Simpson CD, Paulsen M, Dills RL, Liu LJS, Kalman DA.  Determination of methoxyphenols in ambient atmospheric particulate: tracers for wood combustion, Environ. Sci Technol, 39 (2), 631-637. (2005)
  73. Steinmaus C, Yuan Y, Kalman D, Atallah R, Smith AH.  Intraindividual variability in arsenic methylation in a US population. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 14 (4): 919-924.  (2005)
  74. Adams JC, Dills RL, Morgan MS, Kalman DA, Pierce CH.  A physiologically-based toxicokinetic model of inhalation exposure to xylenes in Caucasian men. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. Nov;43(2):203-14. (2005)
  75. Steinmaus, C;  Carrigan, K;  Kalman, D;  Atallah, R;  Yuan, Y;  Smith, AH.  Dietary intake and arsenic methylation in a US population  ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, 113            1153-1159  (2005)
  76. Johns, D.O., Daniell, W.E., Shen, D.D., Kalman, D.A., Dills, R.L., Morgan, M.S. Ethanol-induced increase in the metabolic clearance of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in human volunteers. Toxicological Sciences 92(1), 61-70. (2006).
  77. Steinmaus C, Bates MN, Yuan Y, Kalman D, Atallah R, Rey O, Biggs ML, Hopenhayn C, Moore L, Hoang B, Smith AH, Arsenic Methylation and Bladder Cancer Risk in Case-Control Studies in Argentina and the United States. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48 (5): 478-488, 2006.
  78. Steinmaus, CM; George, CM; Kalman, DA; Smith, AH. The Evaluation of Two New Arsenic Field Test Kits Capable of Detecting Arsenic Water Concentrations Close to 10 mg/L.  Environmental Science and Technology  40 (10): 3362-3366, 2006.
  79. von Ehrenstein OS, Guha Mazumder DN, Hira-Smith M,  Ghosh N, Yuan Y, Windham G, Ghosh A, Haque R, Lahiri S, Kalman D, Das S, Smith AH.  Pregnancy outcomes, infant mortality, and arsenic in drinking water in West Bengal, India.  American Journal of Epidemiology, 163 (7): 662-669, 2006.  Published online 3/8/06 at: http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/kwj089?ijkey=fU5zvyAsGas5Gz7&keytype=ref
  80. Steinmaus C, Moore L, Shipp M, Kalman D, Biggs ML, Hopenhayn C, Bates M, Zheng S, Smith AH. Genetic Polymorphisms in MTHFR 677 and 1298, GSTM1 and T1, and Metabolism of Arsenic. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 70 (2): 159-170, 2007.
  81. Von Ehrenstein OS, Poddar S, Yuan Y, Guhamazumder D, Eskenazi B, Basu A, Hira-Smith M, Ghosh N, Lahiri S, Haque R, Ghosh A, Kalman D, Das S, Smith AH.  Intellectual testing of children and arsenic exposure in West Bengal, India Epidemiology , 17 (6): S234-S234, 2006.
  82. von Ehrenstein OS, Poddar S, Yuan Y (Yuan, Yan), Mazumder DG, Eskenazi B, Basu A, Hira-Smith M, Ghosh N, Lahiri S, Haque R, Ghosh A, Kalman D,  Das S , Smith AH. Children's intellectual function in relation to arsenic exposure: Epidemiology 18 (1): 44-51, 2007.
  83. George CM, Smith AH, Kalman DA, et al. Reverse osmosis filter use and high arsenic levels in private well water. Archives Of Environmental & Occupational Health, 61(4): 171-175, 2006.
  84. Cleland B , Tsuchiya A, Kalman DA, Dills R , Burbacher TM, White JW, Faustman EM, Marien K.  Arsenic Exposure within the Korean Community (United States) Based on Dietary Behavior and Arsenic Levels in Hair, Urine, Air, and Water.  Environmental Health Perspectives, 117, 632-638 (2009)
  85. Jo, WJ , Loguinov, A , Wintz, H , Chang, M , Smith, AH , Kalman, D , Zhang, LP , Smith, MT , Vulpe, CD.  Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis Identifies Distinct and Overlapping Sets of Genes Required for Resistance to Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMA(III)) and Arsenite (As-III) in Yeast. Toxicological Sciences, 111, 424-436 (2009).
  86. Porter, KE, Basu, A , Hubbard, AE , Bates, MN , Kalman, D , Rey, O , Smith, A , Smith, MT , Steinmaus, C , Skibola, CF.  Association of genetic variation in cystathionine-beta-synthase and arsenic metabolism.  Environmental Research, 110, 580-587 (2010).
  87. Steinmaus, C , Yuan, Y , Kalman, D , Rey, OA , Skibola, CF , Dauphine, D , Basu, A, Porter, KE , Hubbard, A , Bates, MN , Smith, MT , Smith, AH. Individual differences in arsenic metabolism and lung cancer in a case-control study in Cordoba, Argentina.  Toxicology And Applied Pharmacology, 247, 138-145 (2010).
  88. Steinmaus, C, Ferreccio, C, Kalman, D, Dauphine, Smith, A.  Arsenic-related Lung Disease and Susceptibility Associated With Metabolism and Early Life Exposure.  Epidemiology, 22 Suppl., S49 (2011).
  89. Basu, A, Mitra, S,Chung, J,Mazumder, DNG, Ghosh, N, Kalman, D, von Ehrenstein, OS, Steinmaus, C, Liaw, J, Smith, AH.  Creatinine, Diet, Micronutrients, and Arsenic Methylation in West Bengal, India.   Environmental Health Perspectives 119, 1308-1313 (2011).
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