Michael E. Rosenfeld, PhD

Professor, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences (Primary department)
Professor, Pathology
Dr. Rosenfeld is a Professor in DEOHS and has joint appointments in the Dept. Pathology and the Core Faculty of the Graduate Program in Nutritional Sciences. Dr. Rosenfeld currently serves as the chair of the UW Faculty Council on Research and is a member of the Faculty Senate Executive Committee. Dr. Rosenfeld's primary research emphasis focuses on the effects of environmental factors on atherosclerosis with an emphasis on arterial macrophages and the stability of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in transgenic hyperlipidemic mouse models. These studies include effects of diesel exhaust, respiratory infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and nutritional factors such as pro-and anti-oxidants . Dr. Rosenfeld also studies the mechanisms of vascular calcification. This includes the role of chondrocyte-like cells and adventitial sca-1+ mesenchymal stem cells and expression of factors such as osteoprotegerin and the receptor activator of NFkB ligand in the calcification of advanced lesions in uremic hyperlipidemic mice.

Contact Information

Box: 358050
319 Brotman Building (850 Republican St.)
Seattle, WA -
Tel: 206-543-1738
Tel: 206-718-5451
Fax: 206-685-3662

Research Interests

  • Atherogenesis. Diesel exhaust. Health effects of air pollution. Chlamydia pneumoniae vascular calcification. Chronic Kidney Disease. Cardiovascular Disease and traffic. Food additives & contaminants. Genetic susceptibility to toxins.

Teaching interests

Nutritional Sciences 520 (https://canvas.uw.edu/courses/918399), 521 (https://canvas.uw.edu/courses/949446), 522 (https://canvas.uw.edu/courses/96758), 545/446 ENVH 540 (https://canvas.uw.edu/courses/947073) (Nutrition and Metabolism I, II, III, Food Safety).


PhD, Nutritional Science, University of Wisconsin, 1981
MS, Cell Biology, University of Vermont, 1978


Ongoing projects in the lab include: studies of the combined effects of diesel exhaust exposure and C. pneumoniae infection on atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice, the effects of in-utero exposure to diesel exhaust on atherosclerosis in adulthood in hyperlipidemic mice, , and the roles of OPG and RANKL on vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease.
Selected Publications


  1.  Rosenfeld, M.E. (1978) The effects of vitamin D on calcium accumulation by subcellular fractions of chick epiphyseal cartilage.M.S. Thesis, University of Vermont.
  2. Rosenfeld, M.E., and A.S. Kunin (1979) Studies on the intermediary metabolism of growth cartilage.In: Skeletal Research - An Experimental Approach.D.J. Simmons and A.S. Kunin, editors, Academic Press, N.Y.
  3. Rosenfeld, M.E. (1981) Studies of oxidative metabolism in vascular smooth muscle. I. Glycogen utilization by the medial layer of bovine aorta. II. Respiration driven calcium transport in bovine aortic smooth muscle mitochondria. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin.
  4. Rosenfeld, M.E., D.F. Bowen-Pope, and R. Ross (1984) Platelet-derived growth factor.Morphologic and biochemical studies of binding, internalization and degradation. J. Cell Physiol. 121:263-274.
  5. Rosenfeld, M., Keating, A., Bowen-Pope, D.F., Singer, J.W., and Ross, R. (1985) Responsiveness of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment to platelet-derived growth factor.J. Leuk. Res. 9:427-434.
  6. Rosenfeld, M.E., A. Faggiotto, and R. Ross (1985) The role of the mononuclear phagocyte in primate and rabbit models of atherosclerosis. In: Mononuclear Phagocytes: Characteristics, Physiology, and Function, R. van Furth, ed., The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Niijhoff, 1985, pp. 795-802.
  7. Bowen-Pope, D.F., M.E. Rosenfeld, R.A. Seifert, and R. Ross (1985) The platelet-derived growth factor receptor.Int. J. Neurosci. 26:141-153.
  8. Tsukada, T., M.E. Rosenfeld, R. Ross, and A.M. Gown (1986) Immunocytochemical analysis of cellular components in lesions of atherosclerosis in the Watanabe and fat-fed rabbit using monoclonal antibodies. Arteriosclerosis 6:601-613.
  9. Rosenfeld, M.E., T. Tsukada, A.M. Gown, and R. Ross (1987) Fatty streak initiation in the WHHL and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Arteriosclerosis 7:9-23.
  10. Rosenfeld, M.E., T. Tsukada, A. Chait, E. Bierman, A.M. Gown, and R. Ross (1987) Fatty streak expansion and maturation in the WHHL and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Arteriosclerosis 7:24-34.
  11. Tsukada, T., M.E. Rosenfeld, A.M. Gown, and R. Ross (1990) Immunocytochemi­cal analysis of the cellular composition of atherosclerotic lesions in the human aorta.In: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Evolution of the Human Athero­sclerotic Plaque.Glagov, S., Newman, W.P., and Schaffer, S.A., eds., Springer-Verlag, pp. 349-357.
  12. Rosenfeld, M.E., A. Chait, E.L. Bierman, W. King, P. Goodwin, C.E. Walden, and R. Ross (1988) Lipid composition of the aorta of Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipemic and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Arterio­sclerosis 8:338-347.
  13. Palinski, W., M.E. Rosenfeld, S. Yla-Herttuala, G.C. Gurtner, S.A. Socher, S.W. Butler, S. Parthasarathy, T.E. Carew, D. Steinberg and J.L. Witztum (1989) Low density lipoprotein undergoes oxidative modification in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1372-1376.
  14. Ylä-Herttuala, S., W. Palinski, M.E. Rosenfeld, S. Parthasarathy, T.E. Carew, S. Butler, J.L. Witztum, and D. Steinberg (1989) Evidence for the presence of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbit and man. J. Clin. Invest. 84:1086-1095.
  15. Rosenfeld, M.E., R. Ross (1990) Macrophage and smooth muscle cell prolifera­tion in atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits. Arteriosclerosis 10, 680-687.
  16. Rosenfeld, M.E., W. Palinski, S. Ylä-Herttuala, S. Butler, and J.L. Witztum (1990) Distribution of oxidation specific lipid-protein adducts and apolipoprotein B in atherosclerotic lesions of varying severity from WHHL rabbits. Arteriosclerosis 10:336-349.
  17. Palinski, W., S. Ylä-Herttuala, M.E. Rosenfeld, S.W. Butler, S.A. Socher, S. Parthasarathy, L.K. Curtiss, and J.L. Witztum (1990) Antisera and monoclonal antibodies specific for epitopes generated during oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Arteriosclerosis 10:325-335.
  18. Ylä-Herttuala, S., M.E. Rosenfeld, S. Parthasarathy, C.K. Glass, E. Sigal, J.L. Witztum, and D. Steinberg (1990) Colocalization of 15-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein with epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein in macrophage-rich areas of atherosclerotic lesions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:6959-6963.
  19. Ylä-Herttuala, S., Palinski, W., Rosenfeld, M.E., Steinberg, D. and Witztum, J.L. (1990) Lipoproteins in normal and atherosclerotic aorta. Eur. Heart J. 11(e):88-99.
  20. Rosenfeld, M.E., Palinski, W., Ylä-Herttuala, S. and Carew, T.E. (1990) Macrophages, endothelial cells, and lipoprotein oxidation in the pathogenesis of athero­sclerosis. J. Toxicol. Pathol. 18:560-571.
  21. Rosenfeld, M.E., Khoo, J.C., Miller, E., Parthasarathy, S., Palinski, W. and Witztum, J.L. (1991) Macrophage-derived foam cells freshly isolated from rabbit atherosclerotic lesions degrade modified lipoproteins, promote oxidation of LDL, and contain oxidation specific lipid-protein adducts. J. Clin. Invest. 87:90-99.
  22. Ylä-Herttuala, S, Rosenfeld, M.E., Parthasarathy, S., Sigal, E., Witztum, J.L., Steinberg, D. (1991) Gene expression in macrophage-rich human atherosclerotic lesions: 15-lipoxygenase and acetyl-LDL receptor mRNA colocalize with oxida­tion specific lipid-protein adducts.J. Clin. Invest., 87:1146-1152.
  23. Rosenfeld, M.E. (1991) Editorial comment: Oxidized LDL affects multiple atherogenic cellular responses. Circulation, 83:2137-2140.
  24. Ylä-Herttuala, S., Lipton, B.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Särkioja, T., Yoshimura, T., Leonard, E.J., Witztum, J.L. and Steinberg, D. (1991) Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein in macrophage-rich areas of human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88:5252-5256.
  25. Rosenfeld, M.E., Ylä-Herttuala, S., Parthasarathy, S., Khoo, J.C. and Carew, T.E. (1991) Evidence for the formation of oxidized lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis Reviews 23: 229-241.
  26. Ylä-Herttuala, S., *Lipton, B.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Goldberg, I.J., Steinberg  D., and Witztum, J.L. (1991) Macrophages and smooth muscle cells express lipoprotein lipase in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88:10143-10147.
  27. Rosenfeld, M.E., Ylä-Herttuala, S., *Lipton, B.A., Ord, V.A., Witztum, J.L., and Steinberg, D. (1992) Macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA and protein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbits and man. Am. J. Pathol.  140:291-300.
  28. Stary, H.C., Blankenhorn, D.H., Chandler, A.B., Glagov, S., Insull, W., Richardson, M., Rosenfeld, M.E., Schaffer, S.A., Schwartz, C.J., Wagner, W.D., and Wissler, R.W. (1992) A definition of the intima of human arteries and of its atherosclerosis-prone regions. A report by the Committee on Vascular Lesions of the Council on Arteriosclerosis, American Heart Association.Circulation, 85:391-405. 
  29. Rosenfeld, M.E., Carew, T.E., von Hodenberg, E., Pittman, R.C., Ross, R., and Steinberg, D. (1992) Autoradiographic analysis of the distribution of 125I- tyramine-cellobiose-LDL in atherosclerotic lesions of the WHHL  rabbit. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 12:985-995.
  30. Rosenfeld, M.E., *Lipton, B.A., Ord, V., Ylä-Herttuala, S., Witztum, J.L., and  Steinberg, D.(1992) In situ studies of the atherogenic properties of  arterial macrophage-derived foam cells. In: Atherosclerosis IX. Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Atherosclerosis. Stein, O., Eisenberg, S., and Stein, Y. eds. R and L Creative Communications Ltd., Tel Aviv, pp 315-319.
  31. Rosenfeld, M.E., and *Lipton, B.A. (1992) Cellular responses to oxidized  LDL. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 3: 318-323.
  32. Rosenfeld, M.E., Butler, S., Ord, V.A., *Lipton, B.A., Dyer, C.A., Curtiss, L.K., Palinski, W., and Witztum, J.L. (1993) Abundant expression of apoprotein E by macrophages in human and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.   Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 13:1382-1389.
  33. Rosenfeld, M.E., and *Pestel, E. (1994) Cellularity of atherosclerotic lesions.Coronary ArteryDis. 5:189-197.
  34. Stary, H.C., Chandler, A.B., Glagov, S., Guyton, J.R., Insull, W., Rosenfeld, M.E., Schaffer, S.A., Schwartz, C.J., Wagner, W.D., and Wissler, R.W. (1994) A definition of initial, fatty streak, and intermediate lesions of atherosclerosis. Circulation, 89:2462-2478.
  35. Stary, H.C., Chandler, A.B., Glagov, S., Guyton, J.R., Insull, W., Rosenfeld, M.E., Schaffer, S.A., Schwartz, C.J., Wagner, W.D., and Wissler, R.W. (1995) A definition of advanced types of atherosclerotic lesions and a   histological classification of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb.Vasc. Biol. 15:1512-1531.
  36.  Rosenfeld, M.E., Raines, E., and Ross, R. (1995) The role of  macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In: Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease, Fuster, V., Ross, R., and Topol, E. Editors,  Raven Press, New York, N.Y. Chapter 30, pp 539-555.
  37. *Lipton, B.A., Parthasarathy, S., Ord, V.A., Clinton, S.K., Libby, P., and Rosenfeld, M.E. (1995)Components of the protein fraction of oxidized low-density lipoprotein stimulates interleukin-1production by rabbit arterial macrophage-derived foam cells. J. Lipid Res. 36:2232-2242.
  38. Chait, A. and Rosenfeld, M.E. (1996) Dietary effects on atherosclerosis risk factors. In: Atherosclerosis: Risk Factors and Treatment - Atlas of Heart  Disease, Brown, W.V., volume editor, Braunwald, E., editor-in-chief,  Current Medicine - Philadelphia, PA. Chapter 8.
  39. Rosenfeld, M.E. (1996) Cellular mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis. Diabetes and Clinical Practice 30:1-11.
  40. Rosenfeld, M.E. (1997) Estrogen and the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis: Potential effects of estrogen on the cell biology of the artery wall. In: Hormonal, Metabolic, and Cellular Influences on  Cardiovascular Disease in Women. Forte, T., Editor. AHA Monograph Series, Futura Publishing Co.
  41. Nathan, L., Singh, R., Pervin, S., Chaudhuri, G., and Rosenfeld, M.E. (1997) The role of estrogen on nitric oxide mediated monocyte adherence to the aortic endothelium. In: Hormonal,Metabolic, and Cellular Influences on Cardiovascular Disease in Women. Forte, T., Editor. AHA Monograph Series, Futura Publishing Co.
  42. *Seo, H.S., Lombardi, D.M., Polinsky, P., Powell-Braxton, L., Bunting, S., Schwartz, S.M., and Rosenfeld, M.E., (1997) Peripheral vascular stenosis in apolipoprotein-E deficient mice: Potential roles of medial atrophy and   adventitial inflammation. Arterioscler. Thromb.Vasc. Biol. 17: 3593-360.
  43. Rosenfeld, M.E. (1998) Lipid deposition and oxidation in the evolution of the atherosclerotic lesion: lessons learned from hypercholesterolemic animal models. In: Multiple Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease: Strategies of Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease,Cardiac Failure, and Stroke. Gotto, A.M., Lenfant, C., Paoletti, R., Catapano, A.L., and Jackson, A.S. Editors. Kluwer Academic Publishers. P131-140.
  44. *Crawford, R.S., *Kirk, E., Rosenfeld, M.E., LeBoeuf, R., and Chait, A. (1998) Natural dietary antioxidants inhibit the development of fatty streak lesions in the LDL-receptor deficient mouse. Arterioscler. Thromb.Vasc. Biol. 18:1506-1513.
  45. Pervin, S., Singh, R., Tong, L., Nathan, L., Rosenfeld, M.E., Chaudhuri, G. (1998) Estradiol inhibits the expression and production of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in vivo. Arterioscler. Thromb.Vasc. Biol. 18:1575-1582.
  46. Rosenfeld, M.E. (1998) Inflammation, lipids, and free radicals: lessons learned from the atherogenic process. Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology 16: 249-262.
  47. Prehn, R.T., Rosenfeld, M.E., and Ross, R. (1998) On the lack of an inverse correlation between epimorphic regenerative capacity in the rabbit ear and susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The Cancer J. 11: 200-221.
  48. *Moazed, T.C., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Grayston, J.T., and Kuo, C.C. (1999) Chlamydia pneumoniae infection accelerates the progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E (Apo E) deficient mice. Journal of Infectious Diseases 180:238-241.
  49. Nathan, L., Pervin, S., Singh, R., Ricks, R., Rosenfeld, M.E., Chaudhuri, G. (1999) Estradiol inhibits leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration in rabbits in vivo: possible mechanisms for gender differences in atherosclerosis. Circulation Research, 85:377-385.
  50. *Harte, R.A., Kirk, E.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., and LeBoeuf, R.C. (1999) Elevations in plasma leptin and insulin levels are diet dependent in C57BL/6 mice. Horm. Metab. Res. 31: 570-575.
  51. *Harte, R.A., Rue, K., Schotz, M., and Rosenfeld, M.E. (2000) Hormone-sensitive lipase is expressed by macrophage-derived foam cells in rabbits and humans. Atherosclerosis 149:343-50.
  52. Lin, T.M., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C. (2000) Monocyte:endothelial cell co-culture enhances infection of endothelial cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae. J. Infect. Dis. 181:1096-1100.
  53. Rosenfeld, M.E. (2000) An overview of the evolution of the atherosclerotic plaque: from fatty streak to plaque rupture and thrombosis. Z. Kardiol. 89: Suppl. 3: 1-5.
  54. Rosenfeld, M.E., *Blessing, E., Lin, T.M., *Mozed, T.C., Campbell, L.A., Kuo, C.C. (2000) Chlamydia, inflammation, and atherogenesis. J. Infectious Dis. 181: S3: 492-497.
  55. *Blessing, E., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C. (2000) Chlamydia pneumoniae induces inflammatory changes in the heart and aorta of normocholesterolemic C57Bl/6J mice. Inf. Immun. 68: 4765-4768.
  56. Rosenfeld, M.E., Kauser, K., Martin-McNulty, B., Polinsky, P., Nathan, L., Chaudhuri, G., Schwartz, S.M., Rubanyi, G.M. (2000) Differential effects of estrogen on the intiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic animal models. In: Vascular Protection: Molecular Mechanisms, Novel Therapeutic Principles and Clinical Applications. Rubanyi, G.M., Dzau, V.J., Cooke, J.P., Editors. Harwood Academic Publishers, Reading, UK.
  57. *Kaneko, E., Skinner, M.P., Raines, E.W., Yuan, C., Rosenfeld, M.E., Wight, T.N., Ross, R. (2000) Detection of dissection and remodeling of atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits after balloon angioplasty by magnetic-resonance imaging Coron Artery Dis. 2000 Dec;11(8):599-606.
  58. Schwartz, S.M., Virmani, R., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2000) The good smooth muscle cell in atherosclerosis. Curr Atheroscler Rep. Sep;2(5):422-429.
  59. *Blessing, E., Nagano, S., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C. (2000) Effect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Infect. Immun. 68:7195-7197.
  60. Rosenfeld, M.E., Polinsky, P., Virmani, R., Kauser, K., Rubanyi, G., Schwartz, S.M. (2000) Advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the innominate artery of the apo E knockout mouse. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Dec;20(12):2587-92.
  61. Lin, T.M., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C.(2001) Human monocyte-derived insulin-like growth factor-2 enhances the infection of human arterial endothelial cells by Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Infect Dis.;183(9):1368-72.
  62. *Blessing, E., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Chough, N., Kuo, C.C. (2001) Chlamydia pneumoniae infection accelerates hyperlipidemia induced atherosclerotic lesions development in C57Bl/6J mice. Atherosclerosis; 158(1):13-17.
  63. Rosenfeld, M.E. (2002) Leukocyte recruitment into developing atherosclerotic lesions: The complex interaction between multiple molecules keeps getting more complex. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vascular. Biol. 22:361-363.
  64. *Blessing, E., Kuo, C.C., Campbell, L.A., Lin, T.M., *Bea, F., *Chesebro, B., Rosenfeld, M.E (2002). Foam cell formation inhibits replication of chlamydia pneumoniae but does not attenuate chlamydia pneumoniae induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Circulation 105:1976-1982.
  65. Rosenfeld, M.E., Carson, G.S., Johnson, J.L., Williams, H., Jackson, C.L., Schwartz, S.M. (2002) Animal models of spontaneous plaque rupture: The holy grail of experimental atherosclerosis research. Current Atherosclerosis Reports 4:238-242.
  66. Rosenfeld, M.E., Kauser, K., Polinski, P, Martin-McNulty, B., Schwartz, S.M., Rubanyi, G.M. (2002) Estrogen inhibits the initiation of fatty streaks throughout the vasculature but does not inhibit intra-plaque hemorrhage and the progression of established lesions in apolipoprotein E deficient mice. Atherosclerosis 164:251-259.
  67. *Bea, F., *Blessing, E., *Bennett, B., Levitz, M., Wallace, E.P., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2002) Simvastatin Promotes Atherosclerotic Plaque Stability in Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice Independently of Lipid Lowering.Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 22:1832-1837.
  68. *Blessing, E., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C. (2002) Chlamydia pneumoniae is a co-risk factor for atherosclerosis: Infection prior to induction of hyperlipidemia does not accelerate development of atherosclerotic lesions in C57BL/6 mice. Infect Immun. 70:5332-5334.
  69. *Bea, F., Puolakkainen, M.F., *McMillen, T., *Hudson, F.N.,Mackman, N., Kuo,C.C., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2003) Chlamydia Pneumoniae Induces Tissue Factor Expression in Mouse Macrophages via Activation of Egr-1 and the MEK-ERK1/2 Pathway. Circ. Res. 92: 394-401.
  70. *Bea, F., *Hudson, F.N., Kavanagh, T.J., Chait, A., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2003) The Induction of Glutathione Synthesis in Macrophages by Oxidized Low Density Lipoproteins is Mediated by Consensus Antioxidant Response Elements. Circ. Res. 92:386-393.
  71. *Bea, F., *Blessing, E., Shelley, M.I., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2003) Simvastatin inhibits expression of tissue factor in the arteries of older apolipoprotein E deficient mice independent of lipid lowering. Atherosclerosis 167:187-194.
  72. Chesebro, B.B., *Blessing, E., Kuo, C.C., Rosenfeld, M.E., Puolakkainen, M., Campbell, L.A., (2003) Nitric oxide synthase plays a role in Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular Research 60 (1):170-174.
  73. *Bea, F., *Blessing, E., *Bennett, B., Kuo, C.C., Campbell, L.A., Kreuzer, J., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2003) Lack of effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition on plaque stability in a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular Research 60 (1):198-204.
  74. Bunderson, M., Brooks, D.M., Walker, D.L., Rosenfeld, M.E., Coffin, J.D.,Beall, H.D. (2004) Arsenic exposure exacerbates atherosclerotic plaque formation and increases nitrotyrosine and leukotriene biosynthesis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.  201:32-39.
  75. *Blessing, E., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C. (2004) Lesion progression and plaque composition are not altered in older apo E -/- mice lacking tumor necrosis factor P55 receptor. Atherosclerosis 176:227-232.
  76. *Song, Y.S., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2004) Methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia promotes superoxide anion generation and NFkappaB activation in peritoneal macrophages of C57BL/6 mice. J Med Food; 7(2):229-34.
  77. *Shultz, J.M., Zhu, X.D., LeBoeuf, R.C., Knopp, R.H., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2004) Progestins do not attenuate the atheroprotective effects of 17b-Estradiol in ovariectomized, apoE knockout mice. Fertility and Sterility 82: Suppl 3:1133-9.
  78. Mitsumori LM, Ricks JL, Rosenfeld ME, Schmiedl UP, Yuan C.(2005) Development of a lipoprotein based molecular imaging MR contrast agent for the noninvasive detection of early atherosclerotic disease.Intern. J. Cardiovascular Imaging, 20(6): 561-567.
  79. Campbell, L.A., Nosaka, T., Rosenfeld, M.E., *Yaraei, K., Kuo, C.C. (2005) Tumor necrosis factor-alpha plays a role in the acceleration of atherosclerosis by Chlamydia pneumoniae in mice. Infec. Immun. 73:3164-3165.
  80. *Rattazzi, M., *Bennett, B., Speer, M., Kirk, E.A., Ricks, J., Schwartz, S.M., Giachelli, C.M., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2005) Calcification of advanced lesions in the innominate arteries of apo E deficient mice: potential role of chondrocyte-like cells. Arterio. Thromb. Vasc. Biol 25:1420-1425.
  81. *Blessing, E., Campbell, L.A., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C. (2005) A 6 week course of azithromycin treatment has no beneficial effect on atherosclerotic lesion development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice chronically infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 55:1037-1040.
  82. *Yaraei, K., Campbell, L.A., Zhu, X., Liles, W.C., Kuo, C.C., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2005) Chlamydia pneumoniae augments the death of oxidized LDL treated mouse macrophages by a caspase independent pathway. Infect. Immun. 73: 4315-4322.
  83. *Yaraei, K., Campbell, L.A., Zhu, X., Liles, W.C., Kuo, C.C., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2005) Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulates ATP synthesis in mouse macrophages via a toll-like receptor-2 mediated pathway. Infect. Immun. 73:4323-4326.
  84. Hu, W., Polinsky, P., Sadoun, E., Rosenfeld, M.E., Schwartz, S.M. (2005) Atherosclerosis in the common coronary arteries of the apo E knockout mice. Cardiovasc. Pathol. 14:120-125.
  85. Kamimura, M., Viedt, C., Rosenfeld, M.E., Mackman, N., Blessing, E., Katus, H.A., Bea, F. (2005) Interleukin-10 suppresses tissue factor expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages via inhibition of Egr-1 and a serum response element/MEK-ERK1/2 pathway. Circ. Res. 97:305-313.
  86. *MacDougall, E.D., Kramer, F., Polinsky, P., Barnhart, S., Rosenfeld, M.E., Oka, K., Chan, L., Schwartz, S.M., Bornfeldt, K.E. (2006) Aggressive lipid lowering by gene transfer of the VLDL receptor induces regression and stabilizes advanced atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor-deficient mice.  Am. J. Pathol.168(6):2064-73.
  87. *Bennett, B.J., Kirk, E.A., *Rattazzi, M., Scatenta, M., Varon, R.M., *Averill, M., Giachelli, C.M., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2006) Osteoprotegerin inactivation accelerates progression of advanced atherosclerotic lesions and vascular calcification of older apoE-/- mice. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. ;26(9):2117-24.
  88. Bea, F., Kreuzer, J., Preusch, M., Schaab, S., Isermann, B., Rosenfeld, M.E., Katus, H., Blessing, E. (2006) Melagatran inhibits NFkB and AP-1 activation and promotes plaque stability in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.  26:2787-2792.
  89. Falk, E., Schwartz, S.M., Galis, Z.S., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2007) Neointimal cracks (plaque rupture?) and thrombosis in wrapped arteries without flow. Letter to the Editor. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 27(1):248-9
  90. Schwartz, S.M., Galis, Z.S., Rosenfeld, M.E., Falk, E. (2007) Plaque Rupture in Humans and Mice.Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27: 705-713.
  91. Falk, E., Schwartz, S.M., Galis, Z.S., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2007) Putative Murine Models of Plaque Rupture. Letter to the Editor. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 27:969-972.
  92. Preusch, M., Bea, F., Yang, S., Kreuzer, J., Isermann, B., Rosenfeld, M.E., Katus, H., Blessing, E. (2008) Long term administration of 3-deazaadenosine does not alter progression of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E deficient mice. J. Cardiovasc. Res. In-press
  93. Blessing, E., Preusch, M., Kranzhofer, R., Kinscherf, R., Marx, N., Rosenfeld, M.E., Isermann, B., Weber, C.M., Kreuzer, J., Katus, H.A., Bea, F. (2008) Anti-atherosclerotic properties of Telmisartan in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.Atherosclerosis  199(2):295-303.
  94. Takaoka, N., Campbell, L.A., Lee, A., Rosenfeld, M.E. and Kuo, C.C.(2008) Chlamydia pneumoniae infection increases adherence of mouse macrophages to mouse endothelial cells in vitro and the aortas ex vivo.Infect. Immun. 76:510-514.
  95. Rosenfeld, M.E., Averill, M.M., Bennett, B.J., Schwartz, S.M. (2008) Progression and disruption of advanced atherosclerotic plaques in murine models. Curr Drug Targets 9 (3): 210-216.
  96. Mihalynuk, T.V., Coombs, J.B., Rosenfeld, M.E., Scott, C.S., Knopp, R.H. (2008) Survey correlations: Proficiency and adequacy of nutrition training of medical students. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 27(1):59-64.
  97. Averill, M., Bennett, B.J., Rattazzi, M., Varon, R.M., Kirk, E.A., Schwartz, S.M., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2009) Dietary Antioxidants and Genistein Do Not Inhibit the Progression of Established Atherosclerotic Lesions in Older Apo E Deficient Mice. Atherosclerosis 203:82-88.
  98. Bem, R.A., Farnand, A.W., Wong, V., Koski, A., Rosenfeld, M.E., van Rooijen, N., Frevert, C.W., Martin, T.R., Matute-Bello, G. (2008) Depletion of resident alveolar macrophages does not prevent Fas-mediated lung injury in mice. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell and Molec. Physiol. 295(2):L314-25.
  99. Jiang, S-J., Campbell, L.A., Berry, M.W., Rosenfeld, M.E., Kuo, C.C. (2008) Retinoic acid prevents Chlamydia pneumoniae induced foam cell development in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Microbes and Infection Oct;10(12-13):1393-7.
  100. Preusch, M.R., Rattazzi, M., Albrecht, C., Merle, U.,Tuckermann, J.,Schütz, G., Blessing, E., Zoppellaro, G., Pauletto, P., Krempien, R., Rosenfeld, M.E., Katus, H.A., Bea, F. (2008) Critical role of macrophages in glucocorticoid driven vascular calcification in a mouse-model of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc BiolDec;28(12):2158-64.
  101. Sakr, S.W., Kinsella, M., Johnson, P.Y., Braun, K.R., Potter-Perigo, S., Goueffic, Y., Rosenfeld, M.E., Wight, T.N. (2008) Hyaluronan Accumulation Is Elevated in Cultures of LDL Receptor-Deficient Cells and Is Regulated by Cell Cholesterol Content. J.Biol. Chem. Dec 26;283(52):36195-204.
  102. Park CM, Cho CW, Rosenfeld ME, Song YS. (2008) Methionine supplementation accelerates oxidative stress and nuclear factor kappaB activation in livers of C57BL/6 mice. J Med Food. Dec;11(4):667-74.
  103. Averill, M., Bennett, B.J., Rattazzi, M., Varon, R.M., Kirk, E.A., Schwartz, S.M., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2009) Dietary Antioxidants and Genistein Do Not Inhibit the Progression of Established Atherosclerotic Lesions in Older Apo E Deficient Mice. Atherosclerosis 203:82-88.
  104. Bea, F., Hudson, FN., Neff-LaFord, H.., White CC., Kavanagh, TJ., Kreuzer, J., Preusch, MJ., Blessing, E., Katus, HA., Rosenfeld, ME. (2009) Homocysteine stimulates antioxidant response element-mediatedglutamate-cysteine ligase expression in mouse macrophages. Atherosclerosis 203:105-11.
  105. Song Y, Cho M, Cho C, Rosenfeld ME. (2009) Methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia modulates lipoprotein profile and oxidative stress but not progression of atherosclerosis in aged apolipoprotein E knockout mice. J Med Food. 12(1):137-44.
  106. Campbell, L.A., Yaraei, K.,Van Lenten, B. J., Chait, A., Blessing, E., Nosaka, T., Kuo, C.C., Rosenfeld, M.E. (2010) The acute phase reactant response to respiratory infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae:implications for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Microbes and Infection 12:598-606.
  107. Yucheng Yao, Y., Bennett, B., Wang, X., Rosenfeld, M.E., Giachelli, C., Lusis, A.L., Bostrom, K.I. (2010) Inhibition of bone morphogenetic proteins protects against atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. Circ Res. 107(4):485-94. Epub 2010 Jun 24.
  108. Gonzales, M., Mitsumori, L., Kushleika, J., Rosenfeld, M., Krishnan, K.M. (2010) Synthesis of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles made from the thermal decomposition of organometallics and aqueous phase transfer with Pluronic F127. Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging Sep-Oct;5(5):286-93.
  109. Albrecht C, Preusch MR, Hofmann G, Morris-Rosenfeld S, Blessing E, Rosenfeld ME, Katus HA, Bea F. (2010) Egr-1 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation in a hyperlipidaemic mouse model. Cardiovasc Res. ;86(2):321-9. Epub 2010 Jan 28.
  110. Albasanz-Puig, A., Murray, J., Preusch, M., Coan, D., Namekata, M., Patel, Y., Dong, Z.M., Rosenfeld, M.E., Wijelath, E.S. Oncostatin M is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions: A role for Oncostatin M in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis; 216(2):292-8.
  111. Morris-Rosenfeld,S., Blessing, E., Preusch, M.R., Albrecht, C., Bierhaus, A., Andrassy, M.,Nawroth, P.P., Rosenfeld, M.E., Katus, H.A., Bea, F.  Deletion of bone marrow derived receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits atherosclerotic plaque progression.European Journal of Clinical Investigation 10.1111/j:1365-2362.
  112. Bai, N., Kido, T., Suzuki, H., Yang, G., Kavanagh, T.J., Kaufman, J.D., Rosenfeld,M.E., van Breemen, C., van Eeden, S.F. (2011) Changes in atherosclerotic plaques induced by inhalation of diesel exhaust.  Atherosclerosis; 216(2):299-306.
  113. Bai, N., Kido, T., Kavanagh, T.J., Kaufman, J.D., Rosenfeld, M.E., van Breemen, C., van Eeden, S.F. (2011) Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 255(2):184-192.
  114. Kido T, Bai N, Yatera K, Suzuki H, Meredith A, Mukae H, Rosenfeld ME, van Eeden SF. Diesel exhaust inhalation induces heat shock protein 70 expression in vivo. Inhal Toxicol. 2011 Aug;23(10):593-601. Epub 2011 Aug 17.
  115. Callegari, A., Liu, Y., White, C., Chait, A., Gough, P., Raines, E.W., Cox, D., Kavanagh, T.J., Rosenfeld, M.E. Gain and Loss of Function for Glutathione Synthesis: Impact on Advanced Atherosclerosis in Apo E Deficient Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2011 Nov;31(11):2473-82.
  116. Rosenfeld, M.E. and Campbell, L.A. Pathogens and atherosclerosis: update on the potential contribution of multiple infectious organisms to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Thromb Haemost. 2011 Nov 3;106(5):858-67.
  117. Campbell, L.A., Puolakkainen, M., Lee, A., Rosenfeld, M., Garrigues, H.J., Kuo C.C., Chlamydia pneumoniae uses the LOX-1 receptor for infection of endothelial cells: A mechanism of atherogenesis.Microbes and Infection2012 Jan;14(1):43-9.
  118. Campen, M.J., Lund, A., Rosenfeld, M. Mechanisms linking traffic-related air pollution and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2012 (In press)


  1. Kerwin, W.S., Ricks, J., Rosenfeld, M.E. Atherosclerotic plaque inflammation is associated with altered contrast agent dynamics in magnetic resonance images of experimental lesions. (Submitted to ATVB).

In preparation

  1. Liu, Y., Averill, M., Barry, KC., Hoover, NS., Rosenfeld, ME., Schwartz, SM. Effects of 5-lipoxygenase deficiency on advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the innominate artery of older apoE -/- mice.
  2. Geng, X., Gough, P., Raines, E.W., Kavanagh, T.J., Rosenfeld, M.E. Over-expression of the glutamate cysteine ligase subunits reduces foam cell formation in response to oxidized LDL via down regulation of the scavenger receptor CD36 in RAW264.7 murine macrophages.
  3. Geng, X., Kushleika, J., Gough, P., Raines, E.W., Kavanagh, T.J., Rosenfeld, M.E. Retroviral overexpression of the glutamate cysteine ligase subunits in macrophages provides resistance to acrolein-induced cell death.
  4. Corey, L.M., Baker, C., Stewart, J., Luchtel, D.L., Kavanagh, T.J., Kaufman, J.D., Rosenfeld, M.E. Short term exposure to diesel exhaust does not stimulate plaque progression or increase the frequency of markers of unstable plaque in atherosclerotic lesions in the innominate arteries of older apolipoprotein E deficient mice.
  5. Corey, L.M., Baker, C., Stewart, J., Luchtel, D.L., Kavanagh, T.J., Kaufman, J.D., Rosenfeld, M.E. Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability Changes in Older Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice in Response to Inhalation of Diesel Exhaust.
  6. Bai, N., Corey, L.M., Suzuki, H., Kido, T., Rosenfeld, M.E., van Eeden, S. F. Short Term Diesel Exhaust Particle Exposure and Endothelial Function in Older Apolipoprotein E Deficient Mice: Impact on Nitric Oxide.
  7. Neff-LaFord, H.D., Roque, P.J., White, C.C., Geng, X., Stewart, J., Kaufman, J.D., Rosenfeld, M.E., and Kavanagh, T.J. Glutathione biosynthesis genes protect mouse macrophages from diesel exhaust-mediated toxicity.
Review date: