During the past two decades environmental justice (EJ) has become part of the environmental health language. This page is dedicated to a basic understanding of EJ and the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM).
The Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (DEOHS) has recognized environmental injustices as an important phenomenon to be investigated. Increasing awareness of EJ may influence the focus on underserved communities in the future of scientific research in environmental health.
EJ usually refers to the belief that all citizens, regardless of ethnicity or socioeconomic class, should equally share in the benefits of environmental amenities and the burdens of environmental health hazards. Most definitions have common “themes” of justice in distribution, procedures, and process (Pijawka et al. 1998 and Collins 1992).
Environmental Justice (EJ) is not universally defined. EJ has different meanings to various communities and institutions; therefore, the EJ definition is based in place, time, and perspective. It is often explained using examples of environmental injustices, focusing on the distribution of environmental risks.
Most definitions talk about the “environment” as a place where we live, work, play, and pray; it is the environment of the everyday. Because of this new view of the environment, the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM) has caused a major shift in the idea of environmentalism (Taylor, 2000 and Pena, 2005).
Distributional Justice refers to spatial fairness of the physical distribution of environmental benefits and burdens.
- Unequal siting of landfills
- Unequal siting of polluting industries
- Unequal extraction of natural resources
- Disparate access to recreational space
- Disparate exposure to toxicants on the job
- Unequal arrangement of public infrastructure, such as high ways, public transportation, garbage collection, etc.
Procedural Justice refers to providing equal protection from environmental hazards regarding rulemaking and enforcement.
- Unequal protection in cleaning up environmental hazards
- Unequal enforcement in environmental quality control
- Disparate risks in safe food consumption standards
- Disparate impact of cumulative assessment of environmental quality control (i.e. a city may meet air quality standards, but certain neighborhoods within the city may exceed air quality standards)
Process Justice refers to providing opportunities for meaningful citizen involvement in decisions that affect environmental health, including access to information and adequate authority for local knowledge (Pena, 2005).
- Disparate access to information on exposure to toxicants
- Disparate access to regulatory agencies during review on rules, and regulations
- Disparate access to the scientific community on research priorities, and design
- Unequal study subject participation in clinical trials
Let's use the EPA's definition as an example:
Environmental Justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. Fair treatment means that no group of people, including a racial, ethnic, or a socioeconomic group, should bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, municipal, and commercial operations or the execution of federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies. Meaningful involvement means that:
- potentially affected community residents have an appropriate opportunity to participate in decisions about a proposed activity that will affect their environment and/or health;
- the public's contribution can influence the regulatory agency's decision;
- the concerns of all participants involved will be considered in the decision making process; and
- the decision makers seek out and facilitate the involvement of those potentially affected.
The Principles of Environmental Justice (1991) Adopted, Washington, D.C., October 1991
First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit
We, the People of Color, are gathered together at this First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, to begin to build a national movement of all peoples of color to fight the destruction of our lands and communities, do hereby reestablish our spiritual interdependence to the sacredness of our Mother Earth; we respect and celebrate each of our cultures, languages and beliefs about the natural world and our roles in healing ourselves; to insure environmental justice; to promote economic alternatives which would contribute to the development of environmentally safe livelihoods; and to secure our political, economic and cultural liberation that has been denied for over 500 years of colonization and oppression, resulting in the poisoning of our communities and land and the genocide of our peoples, do affirm and adopt these Principles of Environmental Justice.
- Environmental justice affirms the sacredness of Mother Earth, ecological unity and the interdependence of all species, and the right to be free from ecological destruction.
- Environmental justice demands that public policy be based on mutual respect and justice for all peoples, free from any form of discrimination or bias.
- Environmental justice mandates the right to ethical, balanced and responsible uses of land and renewable resources in the interest of a sustainable planet for humans and other living things.
- Environmental justice calls for universal protection from extraction, production and disposal of toxic/hazardous wastes and poisons that threaten the fundamental right to clean air, land, water and food.
- Environmental justice affirms the fundamental right to political, economic, cultural and environmental self-determination to all peoples.
- Environmental justice demands the cessation of the production of all toxins, hazardous wastes, and radioactive substances, and that all past and current producers be held strictly accountable to the people for detoxification and the containment at the point of production.
- Environmental justice demands the right to participate as equal partners at every level of decision-making including needs assessment, planning, implementation, enforcement and evaluation.
- Environmental justice affirms the right of all workers to a safe and healthy work environment, without being forced to choose between an unsafe livelihood and unemployment It also affirms the right of those who work at home to be free from environmental hazards.
- Environmental justice protects the rights of victims of environmental justice to receive full compensation and reparations for damages as well as quality health care.
- Environmental justice considers governmental acts of environmental injustice a violation of international law, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, and the United Nations Convention on Genocide.
- Environmental justice recognizes the special legal relationship of Native Americans to the US government through treaties, agreements, compacts, and covenants affirming their sovereignty and self-determination.
- Environmental justice affirms the need for an urban and rural ecology to clean up and rebuild our cities and rural areas in balance with nature, honoring the cultural integrity of all our communities, and providing fair access for all to the full range of resources.
- Environmental justice calls for the strict enforcement of principles of informed consent, and a halt to the testing of experimental reproductive and medical procedures and vaccinations on people of color.
- Environmental justice opposes the destructive operations of multi-national corporations.
- Environmental justice opposes military occupations, repression and exploitation of lands, peoples and cultures.
- Environmental justice calls for the education of present and future generations which emphasizes social and environmental issues, based on our experiences and an appreciation of our diverse cultural perspectives.
- Environmental justice requires that we, as individuals, make personal and consumer choices to consume as little of Mother Earth's resources and to produce as little waste as possible; and make the conscious decision to challenge and reprioritize our lifestyles to insure the health of the natural world for present and future generations.
The proceedings to the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit are available from the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice, 475 Riverside Dr. Suite 1950, New York, NY 10115.
- Environmental Justice (EJ)...refers to those cultural norms and values, rules, regulations, behaviors, policies, and decisions to support sustainable communities where people can interact with confidence that the environment is safe, nurturing, and productive. Environmental justice is served when people can realize their highest potential...where both cultural and biological diversity are respected and highly revered and where distributed justice prevails.
- Professor Bunyan Bryant, University of Michigan
Book: Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions
- “Environmental Justice” means equal protection from environmental and public health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture, and social class.
-State of Maryland
- Environmental Justice is the right to a decent, safe quality of life for people of all races, incomes and cultures in the environments where we live, work, play, learn and pray. Environmental Justice emphasizes accountability, democratic practices, equitable treatment and self-determination. Environmental justice principles prioritize public good over profit, cooperation over competition, community and collective action over individualism, and precautionary approaches over unacceptable risks. Environmental Justice provides a framework for communities of color to articulate the political, economic and social assumptions underlying why environmental racism and degradation happens and how it continues to be institutionally reinforced.
- Asian Pacific Environmental Network
- Environmental Justice, environmental equity, environmental racism. All three terms have been used to describe a belief that poor and minority communities suffer greater exposure to environmental pollution than other communities: that these communities often bear a disproportionate share of the burdens and realize few of the benefits of living near industrial facilities; and that historically, these communities have lacked the power or opportunity to participate in decisions affecting them. Environmental Justice is not just an air, land and water issue. A company's total impact on its neighboring communities - ranging from its emissions reduction efforts to its local hiring and purchasing practices to the scope and focus of its contributions to the community - is now being examined by environmental advocates, the media and regulatory agencies.
- A Plant Manager's Introduction to EJ
Chemical Manufacturer s' Association, Inc.
- The environmental justice movement has basically redefined what environmentalism is all about. It basically says that the environment is everything: where we live, work, play, go to school, as well as the physical and natural world. And so we can’t separate the physical environment from the cultural environment. We have to talk about making sure that the justice is integrated throughout all of the stuff that we do.
- Professor Robert Bullard, Clark Atlanta University.
July 1999. Earth First!
- Environmental justice means that, to the greatest extent practicable and permitted by law, all populations are provided the opportunity to comment before decisions are rendered on, are allowed to share in the benefits of, are not excluded from, and are not affected in a disproportionately high and adverse manner by, government programs and activities affecting human health or the environment.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Dept. Regulation 5600-002
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),1992
- Environment means many things to many people. The Environmental Justice movement defines the environment as the place where people live, work, study, play and pray. Low-income rural, people of color, Native American, working class, and ethnic communities are disproportionately victimized by polluting industries. Many call this environmental racism. Many low-income communities experience economic extortion by accepting the presence of polluting industries in exchange for jobs and income. Workers are subject to economic extortion by accepting health and safety compromises in exchange for jobs and income. Alliances between labor and the Environmental Justice movement are natural, desirable, and crucial because workers and community residents are affected by the same toxic releases.
- Public Health Institute and the Labor Institute,
“A Just Transition for Jobs and the Environment”
Volume 2, Pollution Prevention, Draft 2
The ideas and definitions around Environmental Justice (EJ) differ in aspects of equity, equality, and autonomy. It could be that two paradigms of EJ are found in the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM): (1) equity and equality; and (2) autonomy.
Equity and equality have been the platform of most institutions’ and many organizations’ decree of EJ. Some activists believe that EJ will be achieved through equitable distribution of environmental benefits, protection, and hazards. Equal treatment of communities seems like an attainable goal because it is a legitimized by greater society.
However, other activists believe that the equity and equality fail to truly accept the Principles of Environmental Justice, which challenges the use of substances hazardous to ecological health (Pena, 2005). Furthermore, some activists believe that aspiring for equality ultimately legitimates politics from which the injustices were fabricated (Faber, 1998).
Equity- refers to freedom from favoritism when referring to a system of law; the fulfillment of standards regarding environmental health
Example: The EPA established standards of acceptable air quality limits. The air quality for all communities should not exceed the standards
Equality- refers to the same treatment and influence of all communities regarding environmental health
Example: All communities should have the same amount of polluting industries; thus, their air quality should be equal.
Autonomy- refers to the right of communities to be independent and self-govern decisions that would affect environmental health
Example: Communities should have a right to govern what type of air quality standards or how many polluting industries they want for their community.
Reverend Benjamin Chavis, the Executive Director of the Commission for Racial Justice of the United Church of Christ during the Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States report in 1987 and a well recognized environmental justice (EJ) advocate, refers to “environmental racism” as racial discrimination in:
- Environmental policymaking
- Enforcement of environmental laws and procedures
- Targeting of communities for the siting of waste disposal and polluting industries
- Excluding people of color from decision making boards
Some people consider racism an important aspect of the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM) because it illustrates a foundation in the Civil Rights Movement.
The Civil Rights movement gave headway for activists to begin using the word 'environmental racism,' framing racism as a causation of environmental inequities . This perspective of "characterizing the absence of environmental justice as environmental racism sharpened the appeal of the cause (Getches and Pellow in Mutz et al., 2001 ) ," motivated communities of color to fight for environmental protection under the decree of social justice.
Thus, activists began viewing environmental injustices as an extension of institutional racism. Institutionalized racism can be viewed as political practices, cultural norms, and power structures that knowingly, or even unintentionally, affect groups of people disproportionately (Pena, 2005).
EJM calls not only for an end to environmental inequities, but for an end to discrimination in housing, land, education , and employment along with equal access to the political processes where these decisions are being made. A full understanding of environmental justice requires knowledge of various causes of injustice, which may be rooted in discrimination.
Faculty, staff and student at DEOHS are engaged in projects to ensure that all community members are involved in environmental health in the pursuit of Environmental Justice.
An Environmental Justice Town Meeting
In September of 2000, the NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health (CEEH) sponsored a town meeting: “Voices for Healthy Environments, Healthy Communities” that focused on environmental health and environmental justice issues in Washington State.
The town meeting was a forum for community members to help guide the future NIEHS research agenda. It was successful because of the center's commitment to a truly participatory process. The planning team made an effort to have equal representation from community organizations, government agencies, scientists and affected individuals. Over 200 people attended this town meeting, held at Mount Zion Baptist Church, Seattle. The two-day event included workshops, discussion circles, an open microphone, and presentations from over 20 community groups.
"We need community-based research, not community-placed research. We're being studied to death," Yalonda Sinde of the Community Coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ) told researchers at the “Voices for Healthy Environments, Healthy Communities town meeting.
National Environmental Justice Advisory Council Hosting Committee
In December of 2001, three DEOHS institutes were part of the Hosting Committee for the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC) meeting in Seattle. The Hosting Committee worked hard to ensure that community members were involved in planning the evening program and that they had an opportunity to dialog directly with NEJAC members.
The Risk Roundtable: Evaluating Risk from a Tribal Perspective
In January of 1998, the Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication (IRARC) held a three-day educational forum. This forum brought together tribal representatives from across the region and nation and government agency representatives to educate tribal scientists about risk methods and strategies, educate federal and state scientists about risk issues in Indian Country, and to identify obstacles to solving risk issues, potential for collaboration, and avenues for incorporating tribal solutions into federal guidance and actions. It was held at the Wildhorse Resort in Pendleton, OR. It was hosted by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and co-sponsored by CTUIR and the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP). Please contact email@example.com for more information.
The Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition presented the 2nd Annual Northwest "Toxic Communities" Summit, October 27-29, 2006 in Seattle, WA. A gathering of community groups working to clean up toxic sites throughout Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska. For more information, please visit http://www.duwamishcleanup.org/, or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Environmental Justice For All, Tour '06 was held September 24 to October 1, 2006.
The Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication (IRARC). Please contact email@example.com for more information on the following projects.
- Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe
Since 2000, IRARC and the Community Outreach and Education Program (COEP) has had an ongoing partnership with the Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe. We have provided consultation on sampling strategies for assessing potential shellfish contamination and reviewed grant proposals (at least one of which was successfully funded by Bureau of Indian Affiars). We have also partnered with the Tribe in a project funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences(NIEHS) to scope shellfish contamination issues which has led to several grant proposals designed to investigate these issues. Together with other Tribes, community groups and the UW Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, IRARC co-authored a manuscript promoting role of Tribes and communities in research.
- Swinomish Indian Tribal Community
Since 2000, IRARC and the Community Outreach and Education Program (COEP) has had an ongoing partnership with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community. We have helped develop sampling strategies and statistical analyses for seafood consumption and provided technical support and review for numerous grants. Together with other Tribes, community groups and the UW Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, IRARC co-authored a manuscript promoting role of Tribes and communities in research.
- Marine Resources for Future Generations
Since 2000, the Marine Resources for Future Generations (MRFFG) has had a partnership between the Korean Women’s Asssociation, the Indochinese Cultural & Services Center, the University of Washington, and various government agencies. The group meets monthly, and our mission is to promote safe and sustainable shellfish harvesting and ensure environmental justice for future generations. The Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication has helped in formatting, production and printing of a cookbook to promote safe seafood consumption to the Puget Sound Asian-Pacific Islander (API) community. We have also assisted in grant proposals and organized youth tours of UW Environmental Health laboratory facilities. Together with MRFFG, and some Puget Sound Indian Tribes and the UW Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, IRARC co-authored a manuscript promoting role of Tribes and communities in research.
The Center for Child Environmental Health Risk Research (CHC). Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org for more information on the following projects.
- Community Based Participatory Research Project
Beti Thompson, Gloria Coronado, Eric Vigoren, William Griffith, and Elaine Faustman partnered in this unique community-based participatory research project (CBRP). This project investigated multiple pathways that may contribute to organophosphate pesticide exposure in adults and children living in agricultural communities was ongoing until 2008. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides continue to be widely used in the United States. There is concern that they are related to ill health among adults and children. Although exposure to OP pesticides is generally examined in relation to farmwork via a take-home pathway or drift, it can occur in a number of ways, making it difficult to accurately assess risk. It is less certain to what extent children are exposed through environmental, dietary and lifestyle pathways.
- Pesticide Exposure Pathways
The overall objective of this project is to understand the underlying physical and behavioral mechanisms by which non-occupational exposure occurs following pesticide applications. Pesticide spray drift continues to be a concern in farming communities. Children living in close proximity to fields or in agricultural households have been found to have higher exposure than their non-agricultural counterparts. Since 1998, Michael Yost, Richard Fenske, Jaya Ramasprad, Kai Elgethun, and Sarah Weppner implement current studies to understand the proximity exposure pathway that arises due to off-target movement of pesticides. We combine our novel methods for studying children’s activity patterns with our expertise in ambient monitoring of pesticide residues and modeling of transport processes. Please contact Jaya Ramasprad at 206-221-3550 or email@example.com for more information.
- Community Intervention Project
From 1999-2004, Beti Thompson, Gloria Coronado, Rich Fenske, William Griffith, and Elaine Faustman studied to reduce the take-home pesticide exposure among children of farmworkers. To better understand the take-home pathway, we examined the work and home practices of farmworkers that might be related to the take-home pesticide pathway. Specifically, we looked at farmworkers’ tasks, their self-reported overall contact with pesticides, cleaning and other safety facilities available to them as part of their jobs, and their home practices that might reduce the amount of pesticide residues taken into the home. We found a substantial proportion of our sample reported having been exposed to pesticides. We also found that farmworkers had different perceptions of exposure to pesticides depending on the farm tasks they did.
The Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health (PNASH) activities:
- El Proyecto Bienestar (The Well Being Project)
El Proyecto Bienestar is a community-based participatory research project focused on the occupational and environmental health issues of Hispanic agricultural workers in Yakima, Washington. Hispanic agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley provide the manual labor that makes Washington among the most productive agricultural states in the country. However, agricultural workers experience many social, economic, cultural and legal constraints to the health and well-being of themselves and their families. Proyecto Bienestar partners include the University of Washington, the Yakima Valley Farm Worker's Clinic, Radio KDNA and Heritage University. The goal of the project is to study environmental and occupational risks and develop an issues-driven action plan according to the priorities set by the community. Several research methodologies are being used in order to best identify and prioritize risks.
- Workplace Determinants of Take-Home Pesticide Exposure
PNASH Director Richard Fenske and the Center’s Industrial Hygienist Kit Galvin are collaborating with Washington state employers and workers on a project with two major goals: to better understand how workplace chemicals are inadvertently brought into workers’ homes and to reduce the exposure to pesticides of workers and their families, especially children. Investigators began by sampling vehicle and household dust to determine the extent that the take-home pathway contributes to home pesticide residue levels. Subsequent interviews and work site evaluations contributed to the design of several interventions that were then tested. PNASH studies found a strong association between home and vehicle dust for a number of pesticides, providing further support for the take-home exposure pathway. This project will continue through September of 2006.
- The Readability of Farm Safety Materials for Migrant Farm Workers
Eastern Washington University Center for Farm Health and Safety researcher Mark Landa’s studied the links between literacy and safety among Hispanic farm workers. He measured the comprehensibility of graphics such as signs and symbols and text such as paragraphs and labels. His work indicates that less than half of the pesticide safety materials used in his study were understood by the subjects. The more text there was, the harder it was to understand. Education and literacy were only part of the capacity to learn. The highest score in Landa’s comprehension test was achieved by a 70 year-old woman with two years of formal education. Interested parties may obtain a copy of the report by contacting Mark Landa at firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Development of a Community Theater Troupe: Health and Farm Safety Training for Hispanic Agricultural Workers
Pamela Elkind, Director of the EWU Center for Farm Safety and Health, used Spanish-language theater to educate farm workers about health hazards and prevention strategies. The project presented four one-act plays with community actors in a fiesta setting to farm workers in the Yakima Valley. Two videos resulted:
- Suenos y Desafios addresses sound ergonomic practices in general, and musculoskeletal injury reduction in packing houses specifically.
- Dora Evelia focuses on pesticide safety and was edited to include EPA pesticide guidelines and English subtitles.
Community Outreach & Ethics Core activities
- Environmental Justice Network in Action (EJNA)
The Community Outreach and Education Program (COEP) is supported by the NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health and the UW Superfund Research Program. COEP staff has actively participated in the Environmental Justice Network in Action (EJNA), a coalition convened by Seattle Public Utilities. EJNA is made up of community based organizations, agencies and academics, who have been working together since 2001, to determine what environmental health concerns are most relevant to recent immigrant and refugee population in King County. Focus groups, interviews, and surveys were used to gather information on the best ways respond to the environmental health concerns of our underserved communities. Outreach activities, conducted by community members, have included in-home visits, staffing booths at community fairs and presentations at professional meetings. Click here for a list of resources for the community.
- February 2004: “The Science of Politics of Environmental Risk: Views From the Environmental Justice Movement” featuring Dr. Devon Pena, Professor at UW Department of Environmental Anthropology.
- March 2005: “Reshaping Science and Research for Environmental Justice” featuring Running-Grass, Environmental Justice Specialist Region IX, Environmental Protection Agency.
- February 2005: “A Discussion of the Proposed EPA CHEERS Study” featuring four students of the DEOHS graduate program. The seminar presented the scientific merit, politics, and environmental justice issues of an extremely controversial EPA study, Children’s Environmental Exposure Research Study (CHEERS). The students initiated the seminar in order to promote inter-departmental discussion about such “real life” issues.
- October 2005: “Mercury Regulation and Environmental Justice: Issues for Human Health, Environmental Quality, and Tribal Rights” featuring Professor Catherine O’Neil, J.D.
- December 2006: Marjora Carter (winner of a $500,000 MacArthur "genius grant") was a seminar speaker on environmental justice.
- The Environmental Risk and Society (ENVH 472) course includes one week on EJ. EJ is explored by looking at environmental health risks as they relate to communities of color and low-income populations.
- The Hazardous Waste Management (ENVH 446) course includes one discussion on EJ. EJ is investigated by looking at environmental health risks of Superfund sites as they relate to communities of color. Furthermore, EJ is examined by discussing different perceptions of risk by different communities.
- Exploring Environment and Health Connections (ENV H 111) course includes two course period lectures on EJ. Social and scientific concepts of EJ are presented.
Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced a new position within the EPA to focus on diversity within the organization and EJ issues throughout the United States. Her remarks were made at the 31st Annual Blacks in Government conference on August 25, 2009.
Standing on Principle: The Global Push for Environmental Justice
October 2007 Issue, Environmental Health Perspectives Climate change, acid rain, depletion of the ozone layer, species extinction—all of these issues point to one thing: environmental health is a global issue that concerns all nations of the world. Now add environmental justice to the list. From South Bronx to Soweto, from Penang to El Paso, communities all over the world are finding commonality in their experiences and goals in seeking environmental justice.
RSS feeds - Google News Environmental Justice
Oregon Legislature establishes Environmental Justice Task Force: Oregon State Senate Bill 420 created the Environmental Justice Task Force. Specifies duties and responsibilities. Requires natural resource agencies to perform certain actions relating to environmental justice. Defines "natural resource agency."
EPA grants will help nail salons: Environmental Coalition of South Seattle and the Seattle-based Community Coalition for Environmental Justice share a grant to reduce exposure to chemicals.
Environmental justice podcasts (from Block, Street, Building blog)
Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University
AAEA - African American Environmentalist Association
APEN - Asian Pacific Environmental Network
API - Asian and Pacific Islanders
ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CATE - Citizens Against Toxic Exposure
CBOs - community-based organizations
CCEJ - Community Coalition for Environmental Justice
CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CEQ - Council on Environmental Quality
CDC - Center for Disease Control
DEOHS - Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
Dine CARE - Dine Citizens Against Ruining our Environment
DDT - Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane
DSCEJ - Deep South Center for Environmental Justice
EA - environmental assessment
EIS - environmental impact statement
EJ - Environmental Justice
EJM - Environmental Justice Movement
EJRC - Environmental Justice Resource Center
EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FDA - Food and Drug Administration
FNEEJ - Farmworker Network for Economic and Environmental Justice
G10 - “Group of Ten” environmental organizations
GAO - General Accounting Office
GIS - Geographic Information Systems
HBCUs - historically black colleges and universities
IEN - Indigenous Environmental Network
IOM - Institute of Medicine
IWG - Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice
IWN - Indigenous Women’s Network
LULU - Locally undesirable/unwanted land uses
MELA - Madres del Este Los Angeles (Mothers of East Los Angeles)
MLK - Martin Luther King Jr.
NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act
NEJAC - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council
NIH - National Institutes of Health
NIEHS - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIMBY - not in my backyard
NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
NPL - National Priority List
PBS - Public Broadcasting Service
PCB - polychlorinated biphenyl
PEJ - Principles of Environmental Justice
RECA - Reformed Radiation Exposure Compensation Act
SARA - Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act
SNEEJ - Southwest Network for Environmental and Economic Justice
SOC - Southern Organizing Committee
SWOP - Southwest Organizing Project
TAG - technical assistance grant
TRI - toxic release inventory
UFW - United Farm Workers of America
UFWOC - United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
USDA - U.S. Department of Agriculture
WE ACT - West Harlem Environmental Action
WERA - West End Revitalization Association
Berkeley Workshop on Environmental Politics. Environmental Justice and Environmental Racism: An Annotated Bibliography and General Overview, Focusing on U.S. Literature (1999-2002). PDF
Environmental Inequity Bibliography
Environmental Justice Resource Center’s Annotated Bibliography
The Federal Highway Administration’s current annotated bibliography
Adamson, Joni. 2001. American Indian, Environmental Justice, and Ecocritisism: The Middle Place. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
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Camacho, David E. (ed.). 1998. Environmental Injustice, Political Struggles. Durham: Duke University Press.
Boyce, James and Barry G. Shelley (eds.). 2003. Natural Assets: Democratizing Environmental Ownership. Washington DC: Island Press.
Bryant, Bunyan (ed.). 1995. Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Bryant, Bunyan and Paul Mohai (eds.). 1992. Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Bullard, Robert D. 1990. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder: Westview Press.
Bullard, Robert D. 1993. Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston: South End Press.
Bullard, Robert D. (ed.). 1994. Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.
Bullard, Robert D. 1987. Invisible Houston: The Black Experience in Boom and Bust. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
Bullard, Robert D. and Glenn S. Johnson (eds.). 1997. Just Transportation: Dismantling Race & Class Barriers to Mobility. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.
Churchill, Ward. 1999. Struggle for the Land: Native North American Resistance to Genocide, Ecocide and Colonization. Canada: City Lights Books.
Cole, Luke W. and Sheila Foster. 2001. From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement. New York: New York University Press.
Faber, Daniel (ed.). 1998. The Struggle for Ecological Democracy: Environmental Justice Movements in the United States. New York: Guilford Publications.
Fisher, Frank. 2000. Citizens, Experts, and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge. Durham: Duke University Press.
Forsyth, Tim. 2003. Critical Political Ecology: The Politics of Environmental Science. London: Routledge.
Gerrard Michael B. 1995. Whose Backyard, Whose Risk: Fear and Fairness in Toxic and Nuclear Waste Siting. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Geddicks, Al. 1993. The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles Against Multinational Corporations. Boston: South End Press.
Hofrichter, Richard (ed.). 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers.
LaDuke, Winona. 1999. All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life. Boston, MA: Southend Press.
Lester, James P., David W. Allen, Kelly M. Hill. 2001. Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Manaster, Kenneth A. 1995. Environmental Protection and Justice: Readings and Commentary on Environmental Law and Practice. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Co.
McGovern, Dan. 1995. The Campo Indian Landfill Wall: The Fight for Gold in California’s Garbage. London: University of Oklahoma Press.
Moyers, Bill D. 1990. Global Dumping Ground: The International Traffic in Hazardous Waste. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press.
Mutz, Kathryn M., Gary C. Bryner, and Doublas S. Kenney (eds.). 2001. Justice and Natural Resources: Concepts Strategies, and Applications. Washington: Island Press.
Novotny, Patrick. 2000. Where We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and The Struggle for a New Environmentalism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Pellow, David and Robert Brulle (eds.). 2005. Power, Justice and the Environment: A Critique of the Environmental Justice Movement. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Pena, Devon G. 2005. Mexican Americans and the Environment: Tierra y vida. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
Pena, Devon G. (ed.). 1998. Chicano Culture, Ecology, Politics: Subversive Kin. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
Pulido, Laura. 1996. Environmentalism and Economic Justice: Two Chicano Struggles in the Southwest. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.
Rechtschaffen, C. and E. Gauna. 2002. Environmental Justice: Law, Policy, and Regulation. Durham: North Carolina Academic Press.
Roberts, J. Timmons and Melissa M. Toffolon-Weiss. 2001. Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
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