Environmental Justice

During the past two decades environmental justice (EJ) has become part of the environmental health language. This page is dedicated to a basic understanding of EJ and the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM).

The Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (DEOHS) has recognized environmental injustices as an important phenomenon to be investigated. Increasing awareness of EJ may influence the focus on underserved communities in the future of scientific research in environmental health.

What is Environmental Justice?

EJ usually refers to the belief that all citizens, regardless of ethnicity or socioeconomic class, should equally share in the benefits of environmental amenities and the burdens of environmental health hazards. Most definitions have common “themes” of justice in distribution, procedures, and process (Pijawka et al. 1998 and Collins 1992).

Environmental Justice (EJ) is not universally defined. EJ has different meanings to various communities and institutions; therefore, the EJ definition is based in place, time, and perspective. It is often explained using examples of environmental injustices, focusing on the distribution of environmental risks.

Most definitions talk about the “environment” as a place where we live, work, play, and pray; it is the environment of the everyday. Because of this new view of the environment, the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM) has caused a major shift in the idea of environmentalism (Taylor, 2000 and Pena, 2005).

Distributional Justice refers to spatial fairness of the physical distribution of environmental benefits and burdens.

  • Unequal siting of landfills
  • Unequal siting of polluting industries
  • Unequal extraction of natural resources
  • Disparate access to recreational space
  • Disparate exposure to toxicants on the job
  • Unequal arrangement of public infrastructure, such as high ways, public transportation, garbage collection, etc.

Procedural Justice refers to providing equal protection from environmental hazards regarding rulemaking and enforcement.

  • Unequal protection in cleaning up environmental hazards
  • Unequal enforcement in environmental quality control
  • Disparate risks in safe food consumption standards
  • Disparate impact of cumulative assessment of environmental quality control (i.e. a city may meet air quality standards, but certain neighborhoods within the city may exceed air quality standards)

Process Justice refers to providing opportunities for meaningful citizen involvement in decisions that affect environmental health, including access to information and adequate authority for local knowledge (Pena, 2005).

  • Disparate access to information on exposure to toxicants
  • Disparate access to regulatory agencies during review on rules, and regulations
  • Disparate access to the scientific community on research priorities, and design
  • Unequal study subject participation in clinical trials

Let's use the EPA's definition as an example:
Environmental Justice is the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. Fair treatment means that no group of people, including a racial, ethnic, or a socioeconomic group, should bear a disproportionate share of the negative environmental consequences resulting from industrial, municipal, and commercial operations or the execution of federal, state, local, and tribal programs and policies. Meaningful involvement means that:

  • potentially affected community residents have an appropriate opportunity to participate in decisions about a proposed activity that will affect their environment and/or health;
  • the public's contribution can influence the regulatory agency's decision;
  • the concerns of all participants involved will be considered in the decision making process; and
  • the decision makers seek out and facilitate the involvement of those potentially affected.

The Principles of Environmental Justice (1991) Adopted, Washington, D.C., October 1991
First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit

We, the People of Color, are gathered together at this First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, to begin to build a national movement of all peoples of color to fight the destruction of our lands and communities, do hereby reestablish our spiritual interdependence to the sacredness of our Mother Earth; we respect and celebrate each of our cultures, languages and beliefs about the natural world and our roles in healing ourselves; to insure environmental justice; to promote economic alternatives which would contribute to the development of environmentally safe livelihoods; and to secure our political, economic and cultural liberation that has been denied for over 500 years of colonization and oppression, resulting in the poisoning of our communities and land and the genocide of our peoples, do affirm and adopt these Principles of Environmental Justice.

  • Environmental justice affirms the sacredness of Mother Earth, ecological unity and the interdependence of all species, and the right to be free from ecological destruction.
  • Environmental justice demands that public policy be based on mutual respect and justice for all peoples, free from any form of discrimination or bias.
  • Environmental justice mandates the right to ethical, balanced and responsible uses of land and renewable resources in the interest of a sustainable planet for humans and other living things.
  • Environmental justice calls for universal protection from extraction, production and disposal of toxic/hazardous wastes and poisons that threaten the fundamental right to clean air, land, water and food.
  • Environmental justice affirms the fundamental right to political, economic, cultural and environmental self-determination to all peoples.
  • Environmental justice demands the cessation of the production of all toxins, hazardous wastes, and radioactive substances, and that all past and current producers be held strictly accountable to the people for detoxification and the containment at the point of production.
  • Environmental justice demands the right to participate as equal partners at every level of decision-making including needs assessment, planning, implementation, enforcement and evaluation.
  • Environmental justice affirms the right of all workers to a safe and healthy work environment, without being forced to choose between an unsafe livelihood and unemployment It also affirms the right of those who work at home to be free from environmental hazards.
  • Environmental justice protects the rights of victims of environmental justice to receive full compensation and reparations for damages as well as quality health care.
  • Environmental justice considers governmental acts of environmental injustice a violation of international law, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, and the United Nations Convention on Genocide.
  • Environmental justice recognizes the special legal relationship of Native Americans to the US government through treaties, agreements, compacts, and covenants affirming their sovereignty and self-determination.
  • Environmental justice affirms the need for an urban and rural ecology to clean up and rebuild our cities and rural areas in balance with nature, honoring the cultural integrity of all our communities, and providing fair access for all to the full range of resources.
  • Environmental justice calls for the strict enforcement of principles of informed consent, and a halt to the testing of experimental reproductive and medical procedures and vaccinations on people of color.
  • Environmental justice opposes the destructive operations of multi-national corporations.
  • Environmental justice opposes military occupations, repression and exploitation of lands, peoples and cultures.
  • Environmental justice calls for the education of present and future generations which emphasizes social and environmental issues, based on our experiences and an appreciation of our diverse cultural perspectives.
  • Environmental justice requires that we, as individuals, make personal and consumer choices to consume as little of Mother Earth's resources and to produce as little waste as possible; and make the conscious decision to challenge and reprioritize our lifestyles to insure the health of the natural world for present and future generations.


Definitions of Environmental Justice

The proceedings to the First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit are available from the United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice, 475 Riverside Dr. Suite 1950, New York, NY 10115.

  • Environmental Justice (EJ)...refers to those cultural norms and values, rules, regulations, behaviors, policies, and decisions to support sustainable communities where people can interact with confidence that the environment is safe, nurturing, and productive. Environmental justice is served when people can realize their highest potential...where both cultural and biological diversity are respected and highly revered and where distributed justice prevails.
    - Professor Bunyan Bryant, University of Michigan
    Book: Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions
  • “Environmental Justice” means equal protection from environmental and public health hazards for all people regardless of race, income, culture, and social class.
    -State of Maryland
  • Environmental Justice is the right to a decent, safe quality of life for people of all races, incomes and cultures in the environments where we live, work, play, learn and pray. Environmental Justice emphasizes accountability, democratic practices, equitable treatment and self-determination. Environmental justice principles prioritize public good over profit, cooperation over competition, community and collective action over individualism, and precautionary approaches over unacceptable risks. Environmental Justice provides a framework for communities of color to articulate the political, economic and social assumptions underlying why environmental racism and degradation happens and how it continues to be institutionally reinforced.
    - Asian Pacific Environmental Network
  • Environmental Justice, environmental equity, environmental racism. All three terms have been used to describe a belief that poor and minority communities suffer greater exposure to environmental pollution than other communities: that these communities often bear a disproportionate share of the burdens and realize few of the benefits of living near industrial facilities; and that historically, these communities have lacked the power or opportunity to participate in decisions affecting them.   Environmental Justice is not just an air, land and water issue. A company's total impact on its neighboring communities - ranging from its emissions reduction efforts to its local hiring and purchasing practices to the scope and focus of its contributions to the community - is now being examined by environmental advocates, the media and regulatory agencies.
    - A Plant Manager's Introduction to EJ
    Chemical Manufacturer s' Association, Inc.
  • The environmental justice movement has basically redefined what environmentalism is all about. It basically says that the environment is everything: where we live, work, play, go to school, as well as the physical and natural world. And so we can’t separate the physical environment from the cultural environment. We have to talk about making sure that the justice is integrated throughout all of the stuff that we do.
    - Professor Robert Bullard, Clark Atlanta University.
    July 1999. Earth First!
  • Environmental justice means that, to the greatest extent practicable and permitted by law, all populations are provided the opportunity to comment before decisions are rendered on, are allowed to share in the benefits of, are not excluded from, and are not affected in a disproportionately high and adverse manner by, government programs and activities affecting human health or the environment.
    - U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
    Dept. Regulation 5600-002

    - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA),1992
  • Environment means many things to many people. The Environmental Justice movement defines the environment as the place where people live, work, study, play and pray. Low-income rural, people of color, Native American, working class, and ethnic communities are disproportionately victimized by polluting industries. Many call this environmental racism. Many low-income communities experience economic extortion by accepting the presence of polluting industries in exchange for jobs and income. Workers are subject to economic extortion by accepting health and safety compromises in exchange for jobs and income. Alliances between labor and the Environmental Justice movement are natural, desirable, and crucial because workers and community residents are affected by the same toxic releases.
    - Public Health Institute and the Labor Institute,
    “A Just Transition for Jobs and the Environment”
    Volume 2, Pollution Prevention, Draft 2


Equity, Equality, and Autonomy: Paradigms in Environmental Justice

The ideas and definitions around Environmental Justice (EJ) differ in aspects of equity, equality, and autonomy. It could be that two paradigms of EJ are found in the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM): (1) equity and equality; and (2) autonomy.

Equity and equality have been the platform of most institutions’ and many organizations’ decree of EJ. Some activists believe that EJ will be achieved through equitable distribution of environmental benefits, protection, and hazards. Equal treatment of communities seems like an attainable goal because it is a legitimized by greater society.

However, other activists believe that the equity and equality fail to truly accept the Principles of Environmental Justice, which challenges the use of substances hazardous to ecological health (Pena, 2005). Furthermore, some activists believe that aspiring for equality ultimately legitimates politics from which the injustices were fabricated (Faber, 1998).

Equity- refers to freedom from favoritism when referring to a system of law; the fulfillment of standards regarding environmental health
Example: The EPA established standards of acceptable air quality limits. The air quality for all communities should not exceed the standards

Equality- refers to the same treatment and influence of all communities regarding environmental health
Example: All communities should have the same amount of polluting industries; thus, their air quality should be equal.

Autonomy- refers to the right of communities to be independent and self-govern decisions that would affect environmental health
Example: Communities should have a right to govern what type of air quality standards or how many polluting industries they want for their community.  


Environmental Racism

Reverend Benjamin Chavis, the Executive Director of the Commission for Racial Justice of the United Church of Christ during the Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States report in 1987 and a well recognized environmental justice (EJ) advocate, refers to “environmental racism” as racial discrimination in:

  • Environmental policymaking
  • Enforcement of environmental laws and procedures
  • Targeting of communities for the siting of waste disposal and polluting industries
  • Excluding people of color from decision making boards

Some people consider racism an important aspect of the Environmental Justice Movement (EJM) because it illustrates a foundation in the Civil Rights Movement.

The Civil Rights movement gave headway for activists to begin using the word 'environmental racism,' framing racism as a causation of environmental inequities .   This perspective of "characterizing the absence of environmental justice as environmental racism sharpened the appeal of the cause (Getches and Pellow in Mutz et al., 2001 ) ," motivated communities of color to fight for environmental protection under the decree of social justice.  

Thus, activists began viewing environmental injustices as an extension of institutional racism.   Institutionalized racism can be viewed as political practices, cultural norms, and power structures that knowingly, or even unintentionally, affect groups of people disproportionately (Pena, 2005).

EJM calls not only for an end to environmental inequities, but for an end to discrimination in housing, land, education , and employment along with equal access to the political processes where these decisions are being made.   A full understanding of environmental justice requires knowledge of various causes of injustice, which may be rooted in discrimination.


Environmental Justice at DEOHS

Faculty, staff and student at DEOHS are engaged in projects to ensure that all community members are involved in environmental health in the pursuit of Environmental Justice.

In-Process Justice

An Environmental Justice Town Meeting
In September of 2000, the NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health (CEEH) sponsored a town meeting: “Voices for Healthy Environments, Healthy Communities” that focused on environmental health and environmental justice issues in Washington State.

The town meeting was a forum for community members to help guide the future NIEHS research agenda. It was successful because of the center's commitment to a truly participatory process. The planning team made an effort to have equal representation from community organizations, government agencies, scientists and affected individuals. Over 200 people attended this town meeting, held at Mount Zion Baptist Church, Seattle. The two-day event included workshops, discussion circles, an open microphone, and presentations from over 20 community groups.

"We need community-based research, not community-placed research. We're being studied to death," Yalonda Sinde of the Community Coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ) told researchers at the “Voices for Healthy Environments, Healthy Communities town meeting.

National Environmental Justice Advisory Council Hosting Committee
In December of 2001, three DEOHS institutes were part of the Hosting Committee for the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council (NEJAC) meeting in Seattle. The Hosting Committee worked hard to ensure that community members were involved in planning the evening program and that they had an opportunity to dialog directly with NEJAC members.

The Risk Roundtable: Evaluating Risk from a Tribal Perspective
In January of 1998, the Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication (IRARC) held a three-day educational forum. This forum brought together tribal representatives from across the region and nation and government agency representatives to educate tribal scientists about risk methods and strategies, educate federal and state scientists about risk issues in Indian Country, and to identify obstacles to solving risk issues, potential for collaboration, and avenues for incorporating tribal solutions into federal guidance and actions. It was held at the Wildhorse Resort in Pendleton, OR. It was hosted by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and co-sponsored by CTUIR and the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP). Please contact irarc@u.washington.edu for more information.

The Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition presented the 2nd Annual Northwest "Toxic Communities" Summit, October 27-29, 2006 in Seattle, WA. A gathering of community groups working to clean up toxic sites throughout Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska. For more information, please visit http://www.duwamishcleanup.org/, or email info@duamishcleanup.org.

Environmental Justice For All, Tour '06 was held September 24 to October 1, 2006.


Research and Activities

The Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication (IRARC). Please contact irarc@u.washington.edu for more information on the following projects.

  • Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe
    Since 2000, IRARC and the Community Outreach and Education Program (COEP) has had an ongoing partnership with the Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe. We have provided consultation on sampling strategies for assessing potential shellfish contamination and reviewed grant proposals (at least one of which was successfully funded by Bureau of Indian Affiars). We have also partnered with the Tribe in a project funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences(NIEHS) to scope shellfish contamination issues which has led to several grant proposals designed to investigate these issues. Together with other Tribes, community groups and the UW Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, IRARC co-authored a manuscript promoting role of Tribes and communities in research.
  • Swinomish Indian Tribal Community
    Since 2000, IRARC and the Community Outreach and Education Program (COEP) has had an ongoing partnership with the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community. We have helped develop sampling strategies and statistical analyses for seafood consumption and provided technical support and review for numerous grants. Together with other Tribes, community groups and the UW Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, IRARC co-authored a manuscript promoting role of Tribes and communities in research.
  • Marine Resources for Future Generations
    Since 2000, the Marine Resources for Future Generations (MRFFG) has had a partnership between the Korean Women’s Asssociation, the Indochinese Cultural & Services Center, the University of Washington, and various government agencies. The group meets monthly, and our mission is to promote safe and sustainable shellfish harvesting and ensure environmental justice for future generations. The Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication has helped in formatting, production and printing of a cookbook to promote safe seafood consumption to the Puget Sound Asian-Pacific Islander (API) community. We have also assisted in grant proposals and organized youth tours of UW Environmental Health laboratory facilities. Together with MRFFG, and some Puget Sound Indian Tribes and the UW Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health, IRARC co-authored a manuscript promoting role of Tribes and communities in research.

The Center for Child Environmental Health Risk Research (CHC). Please contact chc@u.washington.edu for more information on the following projects.

  • Community Based Participatory Research Project
    Beti Thompson, Gloria Coronado, Eric Vigoren, William Griffith, and Elaine Faustman partnered in this unique community-based participatory research project (CBRP). This project investigated multiple pathways that may contribute to organophosphate pesticide exposure in adults and children living in agricultural communities was ongoing until 2008. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides continue to be widely used in the United States. There is concern that they are related to ill health among adults and children. Although exposure to OP pesticides is generally examined in relation to farmwork via a take-home pathway or drift, it can occur in a number of ways, making it difficult to accurately assess risk. It is less certain to what extent children are exposed through environmental, dietary and lifestyle pathways.

  • Pesticide Exposure Pathways
    The overall objective of this project is to understand the underlying physical and behavioral mechanisms by which non-occupational exposure occurs following pesticide applications. Pesticide spray drift continues to be a concern in farming communities. Children living in close proximity to fields or in agricultural households have been found to have higher exposure than their non-agricultural counterparts. Since 1998, Michael Yost, Richard Fenske, Jaya Ramasprad, Kai Elgethun, and Sarah Weppner implement current studies to understand the proximity exposure pathway that arises due to off-target movement of pesticides. We combine our novel methods for studying children’s activity patterns with our expertise in ambient monitoring of pesticide residues and modeling of transport processes. Please contact Jaya Ramasprad at 206-221-3550 or jaya@u.ashington.edu for more information.

  • Community Intervention Project
    From 1999-2004, Beti Thompson, Gloria Coronado, Rich Fenske, William Griffith, and Elaine Faustman studied to reduce the take-home pesticide exposure among children of farmworkers. To better understand the take-home pathway, we examined the work and home practices of farmworkers that might be related to the take-home pesticide pathway. Specifically, we looked at farmworkers’ tasks, their self-reported overall contact with pesticides, cleaning and other safety facilities available to them as part of their jobs, and their home practices that might reduce the amount of pesticide residues taken into the home. We found a substantial proportion of our sample reported having been exposed to pesticides. We also found that farmworkers had different perceptions of exposure to pesticides depending on the farm tasks they did.

The Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health (PNASH) activities:

  • El Proyecto Bienestar (The Well Being Project)
    El Proyecto Bienestar is a community-based participatory research project focused on the occupational and environmental health issues of Hispanic agricultural workers in Yakima, Washington. Hispanic agricultural workers in the Yakima Valley provide the manual labor that makes Washington among the most productive agricultural states in the country. However, agricultural workers experience many social, economic, cultural and legal constraints to the health and well-being of themselves and their families. Proyecto Bienestar partners include the University of Washington, the Yakima Valley Farm Worker's Clinic, Radio KDNA and Heritage University. The goal of the project is to study environmental and occupational risks and develop an issues-driven action plan according to the priorities set by the community. Several research methodologies are being used in order to best identify and prioritize risks.

  • Workplace Determinants of Take-Home Pesticide Exposure
    PNASH Director Richard Fenske and the Center’s Industrial Hygienist Kit Galvin are collaborating with Washington state employers and workers on a project with two major goals: to better understand how workplace chemicals are inadvertently brought into workers’ homes and to reduce the exposure to pesticides of workers and their families, especially children. Investigators began by sampling vehicle and household dust to determine the extent that the take-home pathway contributes to home pesticide residue levels. Subsequent interviews and work site evaluations contributed to the design of several interventions that were then tested. PNASH studies found a strong association between home and vehicle dust for a number of pesticides, providing further support for the take-home exposure pathway. This project will continue through September of 2006.

  • The Readability of Farm Safety Materials for Migrant Farm Workers
    Eastern Washington University Center for Farm Health and Safety researcher Mark Landa’s studied the links between literacy and safety among Hispanic farm workers. He measured the comprehensibility of graphics such as signs and symbols and text such as paragraphs and labels. His work indicates that less than half of the pesticide safety materials used in his study were understood by the subjects. The more text there was, the harder it was to understand. Education and literacy were only part of the capacity to learn. The highest score in Landa’s comprehension test was achieved by a 70 year-old woman with two years of formal education. Interested parties may obtain a copy of the report by contacting Mark Landa at markl@mfwi.org.

  • Development of a Community Theater Troupe: Health and Farm Safety Training for Hispanic Agricultural Workers
    Pamela Elkind, Director of the EWU Center for Farm Safety and Health, used Spanish-language theater to educate farm workers about health hazards and prevention strategies. The project presented four one-act plays with community actors in a fiesta setting to farm workers in the Yakima Valley. Two videos resulted:
    • Suenos y Desafios addresses sound ergonomic practices in general, and musculoskeletal injury reduction in packing houses specifically.
    • Dora Evelia focuses on pesticide safety and was edited to include EPA pesticide guidelines and English subtitles.

Community Outreach & Ethics Core activities

  • Environmental Justice Network in Action (EJNA)
    The Community Outreach and Education Program (COEP) is supported by the NIEHS Center for Ecogenetics and Environmental Health and the UW Superfund Research Program. COEP staff has actively participated in the Environmental Justice Network in Action (EJNA), a coalition convened by Seattle Public Utilities. EJNA is made up of community based organizations, agencies and academics, who have been working together since 2001, to determine what environmental health concerns are most relevant to recent immigrant and refugee population in King County. Focus groups, interviews, and surveys were used to gather information on the best ways respond to the environmental health concerns of our underserved communities. Outreach activities, conducted by community members, have included in-home visits, staffing booths at community fairs and presentations at professional meetings. Click here for a list of resources for the community.


Education Avenues

Environmental Health Seminar Series

  • February 2004: “The Science of Politics of Environmental Risk: Views From the Environmental Justice Movement” featuring Dr. Devon Pena, Professor at UW Department of Environmental Anthropology.
  • March 2005: “Reshaping Science and Research for Environmental Justice” featuring Running-Grass, Environmental Justice Specialist Region IX, Environmental Protection Agency.
  • February 2005: “A Discussion of the Proposed EPA CHEERS Study” featuring four students of the DEOHS graduate program. The seminar presented the scientific merit, politics, and environmental justice issues of an extremely controversial EPA study, Children’s Environmental Exposure Research Study (CHEERS). The students initiated the seminar in order to promote inter-departmental discussion about such “real life” issues.
  • October 2005: “Mercury Regulation and Environmental Justice: Issues for Human Health, Environmental Quality, and Tribal Rights” featuring Professor Catherine O’Neil, J.D.
  • December 2006: Marjora Carter (winner of a $500,000 MacArthur "genius grant") was a seminar speaker on environmental justice.


  • The Environmental Risk and Society (ENVH 472) course includes one week on EJ. EJ is explored by looking at environmental health risks as they relate to communities of color and low-income populations.
  • The Hazardous Waste Management (ENVH 446) course includes one discussion on EJ. EJ is investigated by looking at environmental health risks of Superfund sites as they relate to communities of color. Furthermore, EJ is examined by discussing different perceptions of risk by different communities.
  • Exploring Environment and Health Connections (ENV H 111) course includes two course period lectures on EJ. Social and scientific concepts of EJ are presented.



Environmental Justice Outreach and Training - EPA Region 10

Jackson Announces New Senior-level Position To Focus on Environmental Justice Issues

Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced a new position within the EPA to focus on diversity within the organization and EJ issues throughout the United States. Her remarks were made at the 31st Annual Blacks in Government conference on August 25, 2009.

How Communities and Workers Are Holding the Port of Oakland Accountable

Standing on Principle: The Global Push for Environmental Justice
October 2007 Issue, Environmental Health Perspectives Climate change, acid rain, depletion of the ozone layer, species extinction—all of these issues point to one thing: environmental health is a global issue that concerns all nations of the world. Now add environmental justice to the list. From South Bronx to Soweto, from Penang to El Paso, communities all over the world are finding commonality in their experiences and goals in seeking environmental justice.

RSS feeds - Google News Environmental Justice

Oregon Legislature establishes Environmental Justice Task Force: Oregon State Senate Bill 420 created the Environmental Justice Task Force. Specifies duties and responsibilities. Requires natural resource agencies to perform certain actions relating to environmental justice. Defines "natural resource agency."

EPA grants will help nail salons: Environmental Coalition of South Seattle and the Seattle-based Community Coalition for Environmental Justice share a grant to reduce exposure to chemicals.

Environmental justice podcasts (from Block, Street, Building blog)

Environmental Justice Grant Programs (EPA)

Environmental Justice Resource Center at Clark Atlanta University

Environmental Justice Program - Region 10

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AAEA - African American Environmentalist Association
APEN - Asian Pacific Environmental Network
API - Asian and Pacific Islanders
ATSDR - Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CATE - Citizens Against Toxic Exposure
CBOs - community-based organizations
CCEJ - Community Coalition for Environmental Justice
CERCLA - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
CEQ - Council on Environmental Quality
CDC - Center for Disease Control
DEOHS - Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
Dine CARE - Dine Citizens Against Ruining our Environment
DDT - Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane
DSCEJ - Deep South Center for Environmental Justice
EA - environmental assessment
EIS - environmental impact statement
EJ - Environmental Justice
EJM - Environmental Justice Movement
EJRC - Environmental Justice Resource Center
EPA - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
FDA - Food and Drug Administration
FNEEJ - Farmworker Network for Economic and Environmental Justice
G10 - “Group of Ten” environmental organizations
GAO - General Accounting Office
GIS - Geographic Information Systems
HBCUs - historically black colleges and universities
IEN - Indigenous Environmental Network
IOM - Institute of Medicine
IWG - Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice
IWN - Indigenous Women’s Network
LULU - Locally undesirable/unwanted land uses
MELA - Madres del Este Los Angeles (Mothers of East Los Angeles)
MLK - Martin Luther King Jr.
NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act
NEJAC - National Environmental Justice Advisory Council
NIH - National Institutes of Health
NIEHS - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIMBY - not in my backyard
NIOSH - National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
NPL - National Priority List
PBS - Public Broadcasting Service
PCB - polychlorinated biphenyl
PEJ - Principles of Environmental Justice
RECA - Reformed Radiation Exposure Compensation Act
SARA - Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act
SNEEJ - Southwest Network for Environmental and Economic Justice
SOC - Southern Organizing Committee
SWOP - Southwest Organizing Project
TAG - technical assistance grant
TRI - toxic release inventory
UFW - United Farm Workers of America
UFWOC - United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
USDA - U.S. Department of Agriculture
WE ACT - West Harlem Environmental Action
WERA - West End Revitalization Association

EPA Superfund Glossary

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Berkeley Workshop on Environmental Politics. Environmental Justice and Environmental Racism: An Annotated Bibliography and General Overview, Focusing on U.S. Literature (1999-2002). PDF

Environmental Inequity Bibliography

Environmental Justice Resource Center’s Annotated Bibliography

The Federal Highway Administration’s current annotated bibliography

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Adamson, Joni. 2001. American Indian, Environmental Justice, and Ecocritisism: The Middle Place. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Agyeman, Julian, Robert Bullard, and Bob Evans (eds.). 2003. Just Sustainabilities: Development in an unequal world. London: Earthscan.

Camacho, David E. (ed.). 1998. Environmental Injustice, Political Struggles. Durham: Duke University Press.

Boyce, James and Barry G. Shelley (eds.). 2003. Natural Assets: Democratizing Environmental Ownership. Washington DC: Island Press.

Bryant, Bunyan (ed.). 1995. Environmental Justice: Issues, Policies, and Solutions. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Bryant, Bunyan and Paul Mohai (eds.). 1992. Race and the Incidence of Environmental Hazards: A Time for Discourse. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Bullard, Robert D. 1990. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder: Westview Press.

Bullard, Robert D. 1993. Confronting Environmental Racism: Voices from the Grassroots. Boston: South End Press.

Bullard, Robert D. (ed.). 1994. Unequal Protection: Environmental Justice and Communities of Color. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books.

Bullard, Robert D. 1987. Invisible Houston: The Black Experience in Boom and Bust. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Bullard, Robert D. and Glenn S. Johnson (eds.). 1997. Just Transportation: Dismantling Race & Class Barriers to Mobility. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.

Churchill, Ward. 1999. Struggle for the Land: Native North American Resistance to Genocide, Ecocide and Colonization. Canada: City Lights Books.

Cole, Luke W. and Sheila Foster. 2001. From the Ground Up: Environmental Racism and the Rise of the Environmental Justice Movement. New York: New York University Press.

Faber, Daniel (ed.). 1998. The Struggle for Ecological Democracy: Environmental Justice Movements in the United States. New York: Guilford Publications.

Fisher, Frank. 2000. Citizens, Experts, and the Environment: The Politics of Local Knowledge. Durham: Duke University Press.

Forsyth, Tim. 2003. Critical Political Ecology: The Politics of Environmental Science. London: Routledge.

Gerrard Michael B. 1995. Whose Backyard, Whose Risk: Fear and Fairness in Toxic and Nuclear Waste Siting. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Geddicks, Al. 1993. The New Resource Wars: Native and Environmental Struggles Against Multinational Corporations. Boston: South End Press.

Hofrichter, Richard (ed.). 1993. Toxic Struggles: The Theory and Practice of Environmental Justice. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers.

LaDuke, Winona. 1999. All Our Relations: Native Struggles for Land and Life. Boston, MA: Southend Press.

Lester, James P., David W. Allen, Kelly M. Hill. 2001. Environmental Injustice in the United States: Myths and Realities. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Manaster, Kenneth A. 1995. Environmental Protection and Justice: Readings and Commentary on Environmental Law and Practice. Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Co.

McGovern, Dan. 1995. The Campo Indian Landfill Wall: The Fight for Gold in California’s Garbage. London: University of Oklahoma Press.

Moyers, Bill D. 1990. Global Dumping Ground: The International Traffic in Hazardous Waste. Washington, DC: Seven Locks Press.

Mutz, Kathryn M., Gary C. Bryner, and Doublas S. Kenney (eds.). 2001. Justice and Natural Resources: Concepts Strategies, and Applications. Washington: Island Press.

Novotny, Patrick. 2000. Where We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and The Struggle for a New Environmentalism. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Pellow, David and Robert Brulle (eds.). 2005. Power, Justice and the Environment: A Critique of the Environmental Justice Movement. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Pena, Devon G. 2005. Mexican Americans and the Environment: Tierra y vida. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.

Pena, Devon G. (ed.). 1998. Chicano Culture, Ecology, Politics: Subversive Kin. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.

Pulido, Laura. 1996. Environmentalism and Economic Justice: Two Chicano Struggles in the Southwest. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona Press.

Rechtschaffen, C. and E. Gauna. 2002. Environmental Justice: Law, Policy, and Regulation. Durham: North Carolina Academic Press.

Roberts, J. Timmons and Melissa M. Toffolon-Weiss. 2001. Chronicles from the Environmental Justice Frontline. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.

Stein, Rachel (ed.). 2004. New Perspectives on Environmental Justice: Gender, Sexuality, and Activism. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Warren, Karen (ed.). 1997. Ecofeminism: Women, Culture, Nature. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Weaver, Jace (ed.). 1996. Defending Mother Earth: Native American Perspectives on Environmental Justice. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

Wester, Laura and Peter Wenz (eds.). 1995. Faces of Environmental Racism: Confronting Issues of Global Justice. Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.

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Government Sources

Clinton, President William J. 11 February 1994. Executive Order 12898 - Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations.

National Environmental Justice Advisory Committee. November 1996. Model Plan for Public Participation.

National Environmental Justice Advisory Committee. 1996. Public Dialogues on Urban Revitalization and Brownfields.

U.S. Council on Environmental Quality. 10 December 1997. Environmental Justice Guidance under the National Environmental Policy Act.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 3 April 1995. The EPA’s Environmental Justice Strategy.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance. 5 May 1998. Interim Guidance for Investigating Title VI Administrative Complaints Challenging Permits.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Federal Activities. April 1998. Final Guidance for Incorporating Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA’s NEPA Compliance Analysis.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. June 1999. Brownfields Title VI Case Studies: Summary Report.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 24 March 1995. "Fighting Childhood Lead Poisoning." Environmental Justice Report.

U.S. Department of Transportation. 29 June 1995. “Final Environmental Justice Strategy” and “Proposed Order to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations.” Federal Register 60 (125): 33896-33903.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Office of Chief Council. 2 February 2000. Environmental Justice in Transportation: Legal Background.

U.S. District Court, Central District of California. 29 October 1996. Labor/Community Strategy Center, et al. v. Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, et al., "Consent Decree”.

U.S. General Accounting Office. 1983. Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation with Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

U.S. General Accounting Office. 1985. Assessment of EPA’s Hazardous Waste Enforcement Strategy. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

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Compilations of EJ Articles

EPA Journal. 1992. Environmental Protection: Has it been Fair? Volume 18 (1).

Environmental Health Perspectives. 2002. Advancing Environmental Justice through Community-Based Participatory Research. Volume 110 (Supp 2).

Fordham Urban Law Journal. 1993. Urban Environmental Justice . Special Issue Volume 20 (3).

Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 1999. Looking at Environmental Justice from an Environmental Health Perspective . Volume 9 (1).

Race, Gender, & Class. 1998. Volume 6 (1).

WorldWatch Paper. 1995. Eco-Justice: Linking Human Rights and the Environment . Volume 127.

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Academic Journal & Law Articles

Arnold, Craig Anthony. 1998. "Planning Milagros: Environmental Justice and Land Use Regulation." Denver University Law Review 76 (1): 105-139.

Arcury, Thomas A., Sara A. Quandt, and Gregory B. Russell. 2002. "Pesticide safety among Farmworkers: Perceived Risk and Perceived Control as Factors Reflecting Environmental Justice." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp2): 233-240.

Been, V. and F. Gupta. 1997. "Coming to the Nuisance or Going to the Barrios? A Longitudinal Analysis of Environmental Justice Claims. Ecology Law Quarterly 24 (1): 1-56.

Been, Vicki. 1993. "What's Fairness Got To Do with It? Environmental Justice and the Siting of Locally Undesirable Land Uses." Cornell Law Review 78 (6): 1,027-1,068.

Bolin, Bob, Eric Matranga, Edward J. Hackett, Edward K. Sadalla, K. David Pijawka, Debbie Brewer, and Diane Sicotte. 2000. "Environmental Equity in a Sunbelt City: The Spatial Distribution of Toxic Hazards in Phoenix, AZ." Environmental Hazards 2: 11-24.

Bowan, William. 2002. An Analytical Review of Environmental Justice Research: What do we really know? Environmental Management 29 (1): 3-15.

Boyce, James K. 1995. "Equity and the Environment: Social Justice Today as a Prerequisite for Sustainability in the Future." Alternatives 21 (1): 12-27.

Bullard, Robert D. and Glenn S. Johnson. 2000. Environmental Justice: Grassroots Activism and its Impact on Public Policy Decision Making. Journal of Social Issues 56 (3): 555-578

Bullard, Robert D. and Beverly H. Wright. 1987. "Environmentalism and the Politics of Equity: Emergent Trends in the Black Community." Mid-American Review of Sociology 12: 21-37.

Checker, Melissa. 2001. "Like Nixon Coming to China: Finding Common Ground in Multi-Ethnic Coalition for Environmental Justice." Anthropological Quarterly 74 (30: 135-146.

Clark, Jeanne N. and Andrea K. Gurlat. 1998. "Environmental Racism in the Sunbelt? A Cross-Cultural Analysis." Environmental Management 22 (6): 857-867.

Cole, Luke W. 1995. "Macho Law Brains, Public Citizens, and Grassroots Activists: Three Models of Environmental Advocacy." Virginia Environmental Law Journal 14 (Summer): 687-710.

Cole, Luke W. 1994. "Environmental Justice Litigation: Another Stone in David's Sling." Fordham Urban Law Journal 21 (3): 523-545.

Collin, R. W. 1992. "Environmental Equity: A Law and Planning Approach to Environmental Racism." Virginia Environmental Law Journal 11 (4): 495-546.

Corbun, Jason. 2002. "Environmental Justice, Local Knowledge, and Risk: The Discourse of a Community-Based Exposure Assessment." Environmental Management 29 (4): 451-456.

Corbun, Jason. 2002. "Combining Community-Based Research and Local Knowledge to Confront Asthma and Subsistence-Fishing Hazards in Greenpoint/Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 241-248.

Cutter, S. L. 1995. "Race, Class, and Environmental Justice." Progress in Human Geography 19 (1): 111-122.

Earnhardt, Melany. 1995. "Using the National Environmental Policy Act to Address Environmental Justice Issues." Clearinghouse Review 29 (4): 436-445.

Edwards, Bob and Anthony E. Ladd. 2000. Environmental Justice, Swine Production, and Farm Loss in North Carolina. Sociological Spectrum 20: 263-290.

Egan, Michael. 2002. "Subaltern Environmentalism in the United States: A Historiographic Review." Environment and History 8 (1): 21-41.

Forman, C. H. 2002. "Environmental Justice and Risk Assessment: The Uneasy Relationship." Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6 (4): 549-554.

Forkenbrock, David J. and Lisa A. Schweitzer. 1999. "Environmental Justice in Transportation Planning." Journal of the American Planning Association 65 (1): 96-111.

Foster, Sheila. 1993. "Race(ial) Matters: The Quest for Environmental Justice." Ecology Law Quarterly 20 (4): 721-753.

Fox, Mary, John D. Groopman, and Thomas A. Burke. 2002. "Evaluating Cumulative Risk Assessment for Environmental Justice: A Community Case Approach." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 203-210.

Fricker, R. D. and N.W. Hengartner. 2001. "Environmental Equity and the Distribution of Toxic Release Inventory and other Environmentally Undesirable Sites in Metropolitan New York City." Environmental and Ecological Statistics 8: 33-52.

Fung, Archon and Dara O'Rourke. 2000. "Reinventing Environmental Regulation from the Grassroots Up: Explaining and Expanding the Success of the Toxics Release Inventory." Environmental Management 25 (2): 115-127.

Gauna, E. 1998. "The Environmental Justice Misfit: Public Participation and the Paradigm Paradox." Stanford Law Journal 17: 3-72.

Gilmer, Ruth Wilson. 2002. "Fatal Coupling of Power and Difference: notes on Racism and Geography." The Professional Geographer 54 (1): 15-24.

Goldman, B.A. 2000. "The Environmental Justice Paradigm for Risk Assessment." Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6 (4): 541-548.

Hamilton, James T. 1995. "Testing for Environmental Racism: Prejudice, Profits, Political Power?" Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 14 (1): 107-132.

Harris, Stuart G. 2000. "Risk Analysis: Changes Needed from a Native American-Perspective. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6 (4): 529-535.

Heikkila, Eric J. 2001. "Identity and Inequality: Race and Space in Planning." Planning Theory and Practice 2 (3): 261-275.

Heiman, Michael. 1996. "Race, Waste and Class: New Perspectives on Environmental Justice." Antipode 28 (2): 111-121.

Hicks, Gregory A. and Devon G. Pena. 2003. "Community Acequias in Colorado's Rio Culebra Watershed: A Customary Commons in the Domain of Prior Appropriation." University of Colorado Law Review 74: 387-486.

Hines, Revahti I. 2001. "African Americans' Struggle for Environmental Justice and the case of the Shintech Plant: Lessons Learned from a Waged War." Journal of Black Studies 31 (6): 777-789.

Hird, John A. 1993. "Environmental Policy and Equity: The Case of Superfund." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12 (2): 323-343.

Hockman, Elaine M. and Charles M. Morris. 1998. "Progress toward Environmental Justice: a Five-Year Perspective of Toxicity, Race and Poverty in Michigan, 1990-1995." Environmental Planning and Management 41 (2): 157-176.

Johnson, B. L. and Coulberson S. L. 1993. "Environmental Epidemiologic Issues and Minority Health. Annals of Epidemiology 3 (2): 175-180

Kalof, Linda, Thomas Dietz, Gregory Guagnano, and Paul C. Stern. 2002. "Race, Gender, and Environmentalism: The Atypical Values and Beliefs of White Men." Race, Gender and Class 9 (2): 1-19.

Kaswan, Alice. 1997. "Environmental Justice: Bridging the Gap Between Environmental Laws and 'Justice.'" American University Law Review 47 (2): 221-300.

Keeler, Gerald J., Timothy Dvonch, Fuyuen Y. Yip, Edith A. Parker, Barbara A. Israel, Frank J. Marsik, Masako Morishita, James A. Barres, Thomas G. Robins, Wilma Brakefield-Caldwell, and Mathew Sam. 2002. "Assessment of Personal and Community-Level Exposures to Particulate Matter among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan as Part of Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA)." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 171-183.

Kraft, Michael E. and Denise Scheberle. 1995. "Environmental Justice and the Allocation of Risk: The Case of Lead and Public Health." Policy Studies Journal 23 (1): 113-122.

Krieger, James, Tim K. Takaro, Carol Allen, Lin Song, Marcia Weaver, Sanders Chai, and Philip Dickey. 2002. "The Seattle King County Healthy Homes Project: Implementation of a Comprehensive Approach to Improving Indoor Environmental Quality for Low-Income Children with Asthma." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 311-322.

Lambert, Thomas and Christopher Boerner (1997). "Environmental Inequity: Economic Causes, Economic Solutions." Yale Journal on Regulation 14 (1):195-228.

Lee, Charles. 2002. "Environmental Justice: Building a Unified Vision of Health and the Environment." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 141-144.

Litt, Jill S, Nga L. Tran, and Thomas A. Burke. 2002. "Examining Urban Brownfields through the Public Health 'Macroscope.'" Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 183-194.

Loh, Penn, Jodi Sugerman-Brozan, Standrick Wiggins, David Noiles, and Cecelia Archibald. "From Asthma to AirBeat: Community-Driven Monitoring of Fine Particles and Black Carbon in Roxbury, Massachusetts." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 297-302.

Lopez, Russ. 2002. "Segregation and Black/White Differences in exposure t oAir Toxics in 1990." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 289-296.

Maantay, Juliana. 2002. "Mapping Environmental Injustices: Pitfalls and Potentials of Geographical Information Systems in Assessing Environmental Health and Equity." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 161-171.

Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka, Robert A. Lynch, Michelle Crozier Kegler, and Valerie J. Skaggs. 2002. "Lead Sources, Behaviors, and Socioeconomic Factors in Relation to Blood Lead of Native American and White Children: A Community-Based Assessment of a Former Mining Area." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 221-232.

Mank, Bradford C. 1999. "Environmental Justice and Title VI: Making Recipient Agencies Justify Their Siting Decisions." Tulane Law Review 73: 787-844.

Mank, Bradford. 1999. "Is There a Private Cause of Action Under EPA's Title VI Regulations? The Need to Empower Environmental Justice Plaintiffs." Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 24 (1): 1-61.

Martinez-Alier Joan. 2001. "Mining Conflicts, Environmental Justice, and Valuation." Journal of Hazardous Materials 86: 153-170.

McWilliams, Douglas A. 1994. "Environmental Justice and Industrial Redevelopment: Economics and Equity in Urban Revitalization." Ecology Law Quarterly 21 (3): 705-783.

Morello-Frosch, Rachel, Manuel Pastor, Carlos Porras, and James Sadd. 2002. "Environmental Justice and Regional Inequality in Southern California: Implications for Future Research." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 149-154.

Morello-Frosch, Rachel, Manuel Pastor, and James Sadd. 2001. "Environmental Justice and Southern California's 'Riskscape': The Distribution of Air Toxics Exposures and Health Risks Among Diverse Communities." Urban Affairs Review 36 (4): 551-578.

Mennis, Jeremy. 2002. "Using Geographical Information Systems to Create and Analyze Statistical Surfaces of Population and Risk for Environmental Justice Analysis." Social Science Quarterly 83 (1): 281-297.

Miller, Vernice D. 1994. "Planning, Power and Politics: A Case Study of the Land Use and Siting History of the North River Water Pollution Control Plant." Fordham Urban Law Journal 21 (3): 707-722.

Northridge, Mary E., Ilan H. Meyer, and Linda Dunn. 2002. "Overlooked and Underserved in Harlem: A Population-Based Survey of Adults with Asthma." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 217-220.

O'Rourke, Dara and Gregg Macey. 2003. "Community Environmental Policing: Assessing New Strategies of Public Participation in Environmental Regulation." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 22 (3): 383-414 .

O'Rourke, Dara and Sarah Connolly. 2003. "Just Oil? The Distribution of Environmental and Social Impact of Oil Production and Consumption." Annual Review of Environment Resources 28: 587-617.

Padgett, David A. and Nikitah O. Imani. 1999. "Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment of Land Use Managers' Attitudes Towards Environmental Justice." Environmental Management 24 (4): 509-517.

Pastor, Manuel. 2001. "Common Ground at Ground Zero? The New Economy and New Organizing in Los Angeles." Antipode 33 (2): 260-289.

Pastor, Manuel, James Sadd, and J. Hipp. 2001. "Which Came First? Toxic Facilities, Minority Move-in, and Environmental Justice." Journal of Urban Affairs 23 (1): 1-21.

Pastor, Manuel, James Sadd, and Rachel Morello-Frosch. 2002. "Who's Minding the Kids? Pollution, Public Schools, and Environmental Justice in Los Angeles." Social Science Quarterly 83 (1): 263-278.

Pellow, David N. 2001. "Environmental Justice and the Political Process: Movements, Corporations, and the State." Sociological Quarterly 42 (1): 47-67.

Pellow, David N. 2000. "Environmental Equity Formation: Toward a Theory of Environmental Justice." American Behavioral Scientist 43 (4): 581-601.

Pena, Devon G. 2003. "The Scope of Latina/o Environmental Studies. Latino Studies 1: 47-89.

Pezzulo, Phaedra C. 2001. "Performing Critical Interruptions: Stories, Rhetorical Invention and the Environmental Justice Movement." Western Journal of Communications 65 (1): 1-25.

Pijawka, David K., John Blair, Subhrajit Guhathakurta, Sarah Lebiednik, and Suleiman Ashur. 1998. "Environmental Equity in Central Cities: Socioeconomic Dimensions and Planning Strategies." Journal of Planning Education and Research 18: 113-123.

Pinderhughes, Rachel. 1997. "Who decides what constitutes a Pollution Problem?" Race, Gender, and Class 5 (1): 130-153.

Pretty, Jules N. and Michael P. Pimbert. 1995. "Beyond Conservation Ideology and the Wilderness Myth." Natural Resources Forum 19 (1).

Pulido, Laura. 2000. "Rethinking Environmental Racism: White Privilege and Urban Development in Southern California." Annals of the Association of the American Geographer s 90 (1): 12-40.

Pulido, Laura. 1996. "A Critical Review of the Methodology of Environmental Racism Research." Antipode 28 (2): 142-159.

Pulido, Laura. 1996. "Development of the 'People of Color' Identity in the Environmental Justice Movement of the Southwestern United States. Socialist Review 26: 145-180.

Pulido, Laura. 1996. "Environmental Racism." Urban Geography 17 (5):

Pulido, Laura and Devon Pena. 1998. "Environmentalism and Positionality: The Early Pesticide Campaign of the United Farm Workers' Organizing Committee, 1965-1971." Race, Gender, and Class 6 (1): 33-50.

Roberts, Steven M. 2000. "Environmental Justice: Examining the Role of Risk Assessment." Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6 (4): 537-540.

Ross, Heather E. 1994. "Using NEPA in the Fight for Environmental Justice." William and Mary Journal of Environmental Law 18 (2): 353-374.

Sadd, James, Manuel Pastor, J. Thomas Boer, and Lori D. Synder. 1999. "Every Breath you Take...: The Demographics of Toxic Air Releases in Southern California." Economic Development Quarterly 13 (2): 107-123.

Sexton, Ken. 2000. "Socioeconomic and Racial Disparities in Environmental Health: Is Risk Assessment Part of the Problem or Part of the Solution?" Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6 (4): 561-574.

Shelton, Dinah. 1991. "Human Rights, Environmental Rights, and the Right to Environment." Stanford Journal of International Law 28: 103-138.

Simon, T.W. 2000. "In Defense of Risk Assessment: A Reply to Environmental Justice Movement's Critique." Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 6 (4): 555-560.

Szasz, Andrew and Michael Meuser. 2000. "Unintended, Inexorable: The Production of Environmental Inequalities in Santa Clara County, California." American Behavioral Scientist 43 (4): 602-632.

Szasz, Andrew and Michael Meuser. 1997. "Environmental Inequities: Literature Review and Proposals for a New Direction in Research and Theory." Current Sociology 45 (3): 99-120.

Taquino, Michael, Domenico Parisi, and Duane A. Gill. 2002. "Units of Analysis and the Environmental Justice Hypothesis: The Case of Industrial Hog Farms." Social Science Quarterly 83 (1): 298-316.

Taylor, Dorceta E. 1997. "American Environmentalism: The Role of Race, Class, and Gender in Shaping Activism 1820-1995." Race, Gender & Class 5 (1): 16-62.

Taylor, Dorceta. E. 2000. "The Rise of the Environmental Justice Paradigm: Injustice Framing and the Social Construction of Environmental Discourses." American Behavioral Scientist 43(4): 508-580.

Tesh, Silvia N. and Bruce A. Williams. 1996. "Identity Politics, Disinterested Politics, and Environmental Justice." Polity 28 (3): 285-305.

Towers, George. 2000. "Applying the Political Geography of Scale: Grassroots Strategies and Environmental Justice." Professional Geographer 52 (1): 23-36.

Williams, Bryan L. and Yvette Florez. 2000. "Do Mexican Americans Perceive Environmental Issues Differently than Caucasians? A Study of Cross-Ethnic Variation in Perceptions Related to Water in Tucson." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 303-310.

Williams, Robert W. 1999. "Environmental Injustice in America and its Politics of Scale." Political Geography 18 (1): 49-73.

Wilson, Sacoby M., Frank Howell, Steve Wing, and Mark Sobsey. 2002. "Environmental Injustice and the Mississippi Hog Industry." Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Supp 2): 195-201.

SEE All articles. 1994. West Virginia Law Review 96 (4).

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Other Sources

Environmental Defense Fund. "Fighting for Equality in Public Transit: Labor Community Strategy Center v. MTA."

Environmental Law Institute. 2002. "A Citizen's Guide to Using Federal Environmental Laws to Secure Environmental Justice." Washington DC. Also found FREE online at http://www.eli.org/sites/default/files/eli-pubs/d12-02.pdf

Goldman, Benjamin. 1993. Not Just Prosperity: Achieving Sustainability with Environmental Justice . Washington DC: National Wildlife Federation.

Goldman, Benjamin and Laura J. Fitton. 1994. Toxic Waste and Race Revisited . Washington, DC: Center for Policy Alternatives, NAACP, United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice.

Hernandez, Lizette. 1999. Building Upon Our Strengths: A Community Guide to Brownfields Redevelopment in the San Francisco Bay Area . San Francisco, CA: Urban Habitat Program.

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Environmental Justice. 1999. Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education, and Health Policy Needs . Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Keck, Margaret E. 1995. Parks, People and Power: The Shifting Terrain of Environmentalism . NACLA "Report on the Americas." March/April.

Kong, Maria and Pamela Chiang. 2001. Fighting Fire with Fire: Lessons from the Laotian's Organizing Project's First Campaign . Oakland and Richmond, CA, Laotian Organizing Project and Asian Pacific Environmental Network.

Lavelle, Marianne and Marcia Coyle. "Unequal Protection: The Racial Divide in Environmental Law." The National Law Journal. 21 Sept: 81+.

Southwest Organizing Project. 1995. Intel Inside New Mexico: A Case Study of Environmental and Economic Injustice . Albuquerque: SWOP.

United Church of Christ, Commission for Racial Justice. 1987. Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States: A National Report on the Racial and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites . New York: Public Data Access, Inc.

Wells, Michael and Katrina Brandon. 1992. People and Parks: Linking Protected Area Management with Local Communities . Washington DC: World Bank.

Walker, Bill and Marshall Hendricks. 1998. School Haze: Air Pollution Near California Schools . Environmental Working Group.

Wolch, Jennifer, John P. Wilson, and Jed Fehrenbach. 2002. Parks and Park Funding in Los Angeles: An Equity Mapping Analysis. University of Southern California Sustainable Cities Program and GIS Research Laboratory.

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Grassroots Organizations

Community Coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ)

Environmental Health Coalition

United Farm Workers

West End Revitalization Association (WERA)

West Harlem Environmental Action (WE ACT)

Asian Pacific Environmental Network (APEN)

Indigenous Environmental Network

National Indigenous Women’s Resource Center

Farmworker Network for Economic and Environmental Justice (FNEEJ)

National Black Environmental Justice Network (NBEJN)

New York City Environmental Justice Alliance (NYCEJA)

Southwest Network for Environmental and Economic Justice (SNEEJ)

Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)

American Bar Association: Updates in Environmental Justice

African American Environmentalist Association

Common Health Action

Center for Community Action and Environmental Justice

Don’t Waste AZ

Health Track

Environmental Justice for Kid NIEHS Kids Page

Sin Fronteras Organizing Project


Environmental Research Foundation

Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law

Government Sites

Air Now

Environmental Justice

EJView - Environmental Justice Geographical Assessment Tool

Environmental Justice Grants

Grant Writing Tips

U.S. Department of Transportation: EJ website

EPA Civil Rights Title VI Complaints

University Centers/Sites

Deep South Center for Environmental Justice (DSCEJ) in Xaviar University of Louisiana

Environmental Justice Resource Center in Clark Atlanta University

Center for Environmental Equity & Justice in Environmental Sciences at Florida A&M University

The Environmental Justice Initiative in the School of Natural Resource and Environment at University of Michigan

University of Virginia Environmental Justice Seminar Course

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