Sverre Vedal, MD, MSc
- Health effects of air pollution; Occupational lung disease
- KEYWORDS: Air pollution, Cardiovascular disease and air pollution, Environmental epidemiology, Exposure estimation, Gene-environment interaction, Health effects of air pollution; Occupational and environmental lung disease, Occupational epidemiology, Ozone, Particulate matter, Respiratory disease, Wood smoke
In the News
Funding Agency: EPA (RD-83479601 / EPA-RC2009-STAR-C1)
This is a center project involving several institutions and projects examining how pollution from roadways affects cardiovascular health. The research integrates the fields of exposure science, epidemiology, toxicology, clinical studies, and biostatistics to study the cardiovascular hazards of recent and aged roadway emissions.
Funding Agency: Health Effects Institute (4749-RFA05)
The major goal of this project is to identify the compositional features of ambient particulate air pollution that determine cardiovascular health effects of long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter.
Funding Agency: NIH/NIEHS (P50 ES015915)
The aim of this project is to use a gene-environment interaction approach to gain insight into mechanisms by which exposure to sources and components of ambient particulate matter cause cardiovascular disease.
1. Vedal S, Anatharaman A, Israel RH. Hidden asthmatic: identification required for propranolol usage. NY State J Med 1980; 80:648-649.
2. Vedal S, Crapo RO. False positive rates of multiple pulmonary function tests in healthy subjects. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1983; 19:263-266.
3. Vedal S, Schenker MB, Samet JM, Speizer FE. Risk factors for childhood respiratory disease: an analysis of pulmonary function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130:187-192.
4. Chan-Yeung M, Vedal S, Kus J, Dorken E, Enarson D. Symptoms, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperreactivity in western red cedar workers compared to office workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1984; 130:1038-1041.
5. Kus J, Vedal S, Kijek K, Chan-Yeung M. Absence of day to day variation in lymphocyte subpopulations in healthy humans. Allergol et Immunopathol 1984; 12:407-409.
6. Chan-Yeung M, Vedal S, Lam S, Enarson D. Immediate skin reactivity and its relationship to age, sex, race, smoking and occupational exposure. Arch Environ Health 1985; 40:53-57.
7. Enarson D, Chan-Yeung M, Kus J, Tabona M, Vedal S, Lam S. Predictors of bronchial hyper-excitability in grain handlers. Chest 1985; 87:452-455.
8. Vedal S, Yeung M, Ashley MJ, Lam S, Enarson D. Does a family history of allergy predict immediate skin reactivity? Can Med Assoc J 1985; 132:34-37.
9. Enarson D, Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M. Rapid decline in FEV1 in grainhandlers: relation to level of dust exposure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1986; 132:814-817.
10. Kus J, Tse KS, Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M. Lymphocyte populations in patients with allergic and non-allergic asthma. Ann Allergy 1986; 15:523-529.
11. Bergin C, Müller N, Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M. CT in silicosis: correlation with plain films and pulmonary function tests. Am J Radiol 1986; 146:477-483.
12. Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M, Enarson D, Fera T, MacLean L, Langille R, Tse KS. Symptoms and pulmonary function in western red cedar workers related to duration of employment and dust exposure. Arch Environ Health 1986; 41:179-183.
13. Schenker MB, Vedal S, Batterman S, Samet J, Speizer FE. Health effects of air pollution due to coal combustion in the Chestnut Ridge region of Pennsylvania: cross-sectional survey of children. Arch Environ Health 1986; 1986; 41:104-108.
14. Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M, Enarson D, Chan H, Dorken E, Tse KS. Plicatic acid specific IgE and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in western red cedar workers. J Allerg Clin Immunol 1986; 78:1103-1109.
15. Vedal S, Schenker MB, Munoz A, Samet JM, Batterman S, Speizer FE. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow. Am J Public Health 1987; 77:694-699.
16. Staples CA, Müller NL, Vedal S, Abboud R, Ostrow D, Miller RR. Usual interstitial pneumonia: correlation of CT with clinical, functional and radiologic findings. Radiology 1987; 162:377-381.
17. Enarson D, Vedal S, Schulzer M, Dy Buncio A, Chan-Yeung M. Asthma, asthma-like symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and the degree of bronchial hyper-responsiveness in epidemiologic surveys. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 136:613-617.
18. Müller NL, Staples CA, Miller RR, Vedal S, Thurlbeck WM, Ostrow DN. Disease activity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: CT and pathologic correlation. Radiology 1987; 23:387-389.
19. Enarson DA, Schulzer M, Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M. Summarizing methacholine bronchoprovocation data in epidemiologic surveys. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1987; 23:387-389.
20. Vedal S, Welsh E, Miller RR, Müller N. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP): computed tomographic findings before and after treatment with corticosteroids. Chest 1988; 93:215-217.
21. Vedal S, Enarson D, Ochnio J, MacLean L, Tse KS, Chan-Yeung M. A longitudinal study of the occurrence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in western red cedar workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137:651-655.
22. Kinsella M, Müller N, Staples C, Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M. Hyperinflation in asthma and emphysema: assessment by pulmonary function testing and computed tomography. Chest 1988; 94:286-289.
23. Chan-Yeung M, Abboud R, Dy Buncio A, Vedal S. Peripheral leukocyte count and longitudinal decline in lung function. Thorax 1988; 43:462-466.
24. Enarson DE, Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M. Fate of grainhandlers with bronchial hypersensitivity. Clin Invest Med 1988; 11:193-197.
25. Vedal S, Enarson D, Chan-Yeung M. Airway size and the rate of pulmonary function decline in grainhandlers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138:1584-1588
26. Miller RR, Müller NL, Vedal S, Morrison NJ, Staples CA. Limitations of computed tomography in the assessment of emphysema. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 139:980-983.
27. Cook NR, Evans DA, Scherr PA, Speizer FE, Vedal S, Hennekens CH, Branch LG, Huntley JC, Taylor JO. Peak expiratory flow rate in an elderly population. Am J Epidemiol 1989; 130:66-78.
28. Kinsella M, Müller NL, Vedal S, Staples C, Abboud RT, Chan-Yeung M. Emphysema in silicosis: a comparison of smokers with non-smokers using pulmonary function testing and computed tomography. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 141:1497-1500.
29. Kennedy SM, Burrows B, Vedal S, Enarson DA, Chan-Yeung M. Methacholine responsiveness among working populations: relationship to smoking and airway caliber. Am Rev Respir Dis 1990; 142:1377-1383.
30. Dunn DP, Vedal S, San RHC, Kwan WF, Nelems B, Enarson DA, Stich HF. DNA adducts in bronchial biopsies. Int J Cancer 1991; 48:485-492.
31. Zwirewich C, Vedal S, Miller RR, Müller N. Solitary pulmonary nodule: high resolution CT and radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiology 1991; 179:469-476.
32. Kennedy SM, Vedal S, Müller N, Kassam A, Chan-Yeung M. Lung function and chest radiograph abnormalities among construction insulators. Am J Indust Med 1991; 20:673-684.
33. Korzeniewska-Kosela M, Fitzgerald JM, Vedal S, Allen EA, Schecter MT, Lawson L, Phillips P, Black W, Montaner JSG. Spectrum of tuberculosis in patients with HIV infection in British Columbia: report of 40 cases. Can Med Assoc J 1992; 146:1927-1934.
34. Lam S, Hung JYC, Kennedy SM, LeRiche JC, Vedal S, Nelems B, MacAulay CE, Palcic B. Detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ by ratio fluorometry. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146:1458-1461.
35. Churg A, Wright J, Vedal S. Fiber burden and patterns of asbestos-related disease in chrysotile miners and millers. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148:25-31.
36. Kennedy SM, Dimich-Ward H, Desjardins A, Kassam A, Vedal S, Yeung M. Respiratory health among retired grain elevator workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150:59-65.
37. Churg A, Vedal S. Fiber burden and patterns of asbestos-related disease in workers with heavy mixed amosite and chrysotile exposure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150:663-669.
38. Mayo JR, Hartman TE, Lee KS, Primack SL, Vedal S, Müller NL. CT of the chest: minimal tube current required for good image quality with the least radiation dose. Am J Roentg 1995; 164: 603-607.
39. Okazawa M, Vedal S, Verburgt L, Lambert RK, Paré PD. Determinants of airway smooth muscle shortening in excised canine lobes. J Appl Physiol 1995; 78:608-614.
40. Wright JL, Sun J-P, Vedal S, Churg A. Effect of cigarette smoke on bronchial reactivity. Can Respir J 1995; 2:231-235.
41. Churg A, Vedal S. Carinal and tubular airway particle concentrations in the large airways of non-smokers in the general population: evidence for high particle concentrations at airway carinas. Occup Environ Med 1996; 53:553-566.
42. Moore B, Hilliam C, Verburgt L, Wiggs B, Vedal S, Paré P. Shape and position of the complete dose response curve for methacholine in normal subjects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154:642-648.
43. Perez-Padilla R, Regalado J, Vedal S, Paré P, Chapela R, Selman M. Exposure to biomass smoke and chronic airway disease in Mexican women: a case-control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154:701-706.
44. Brauer M, Blair J, Vedal S. Effect of ambient ozone exposure on lung function in farm workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154:981-987.
45. Wright JL, Sun JP, Vedal S. A longitudinal analysis of pulmonary function in rats during a twelve month cigarette smoke exposure. Eur Respir J 1997; 10:1115-1119.
46. Vedal S, Petkau J, White R, Blair J. Acute effects of ambient inhalable particles in asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157:1034-1043.
47. Turner MO, Noertjojo K, Vedal S, Bai T, Crump S, FitzGerald JM. Risk factors for near fatal asthma: a case control study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998; 157: 1804-1809.
48. Wright JL, Sun JP, Vedal S. Long term cigarette smoke exposure does not increase airway responsiveness in rats. Lung 1998: 176: 289-297.
49. Churg A, Brauer M, Vedal S, Stevens B. Ambient mineral particles in the small airways of the normal lung. J Environ Med 1999; 1: 39-45.
50. West JA, Dakhama A, Khan MA, Vedal S, Hegele RG. Community study using a polymerase chain reaction panel to determine the prevalence of common respiratory viruses in asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. J Asthma 1999; 36: 605-612.
51. Almoamary M, Black W, Bessuille E, Elwood K, Vedal S. The significance of the persistent presence of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears in pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest 1999; 116: 726-731.
52. Brauer M, Vedal S. Health effects of photochemical smog: seasonal and acute lung function change in outdoor workers. J Environ Med 1999; 1: 163-170.
53. Ebelt ST, Fisher TV, Petkau AJ, Vedal S, Brauer M. Exposure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to particulate matter: relationship between personal and ambient air concentrations. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 2000; 50: 1081-1094.
54. Alamoudi OS, Logan PM, Müller NL, Vedal S, Abboud RT. High-resolution computed tomography and survival in fibrosing alveolitis. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 2000; 8: 353-356.
55. Brauer M, Avila-Casado C, Fortoul T, Vedal S, Stevens B, Churg A. Air pollution and retained particles in the lung. Environ Health Perspect 2001 109: 1039-1043.
56. Brauer M, Ebelt ST, Fisher TV, Brumm J, Petkau AJ, Vedal S. Exposure of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to particles: respiratory and cardiovascular health effects. J Expos Anal Environ Epidemiol 2001; 11: 490-500.
57. Brauer M, Brumm J, Vedal S, Petkau AJ. Exposure misclassification and threshold concentrations in time series analyses of air pollution health effects. Risk Anal 2002; 22: 1183-1193.
58. Vedal S, Brauer M, White R, Petkau J. Air pollution and daily mortality in a city with low levels of pollution. Environ Health Perspect 2003; 111: 45-51.
59. Frangolias DD, Holloway CL, Vedal S, Wilcox PG. Role of exercise and lung function in predicting work status in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 167: 150-157.
60. Vedal S, Rich K, Brauer M, White R, Petkau J. Air pollution and cardiac arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Inhal Toxicol 2004; 16: 353-362.
61. Rich K, Brauer M, Vedal S, Petkau J. A case-crossover analysis of particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Inhal Toxicol 2004; 16: 363-372.
62. Hernández-Garduño E, Brauer M, Pérez-Neria J, Vedal S. Wood smoke exposure and lung adenocarcinoma in nonsmoking Mexican women: a case-control study. Int J TB Lung Dis 2004; 8: 377-383.
63. Mayo JR, Kim KI, MacDonald SLS, Johkoh T, Kavanagh P, Coxson HO, Vedal S. Reduced radiation dose helical chest CT: effect on reader evaluation of structures and lung findings. Radiology 2004; 232: 749-756.
64. Rabinovitch N, Zhang L, Murphy J, Vedal S, Dutton S, Gelfand EW. Health effects of ambient air pollution in children with moderate to severe asthma. J Allerg Clin Immunol 2004; 114: 1131-1137.
65. Silkoff PE, Zhang L, Dutton S, Langmack EL, Vedal S, Murphy J, Make B. Winter air pollution and disease parameters in advanced pulmonary disease panels residing in Denver, Colorado. J Allerg Clin Immunol 2005; 115: 237-244.
66. Stephenson AL, Flint J, English J, Vedal S, Fradet G, Chittock D, Levy RD. Interpretation of transbronchial lung biopsies from lung transplant recipients: inter- and intra-observer agreement. Can Respir J 2005; 12: 75-77.
67. Strand M, Vedal S, Rodes C, Dutton S, Gelfand E, Rabinovitch N. Estimating effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure on health using PM2.5 component measurements and regression calibration. J Expos Sci Environ Epidemiol 2006: 16: 30-38.
68. Vedal S, Dutton SJ. Wildfire air pollution and daily mortality in a large urban area. Environ Res 2006; 102: 29-35.
69. Regalado J, Perez-Padilla R, Sansores R, Paramo-Ramirez IJ, Brauer M, Paré P, Vedal S. The effect of biomass burning on respiratory symptoms and lung function in rural Mexican women. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 174: 901-905.
70. Mayer AS, Stoller JK, Vedal S, Ruttenber AJ, Strand M, Sandhaus RA, Newman LS. Risk factors for symptom onset in PI*Z alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Int J COPD 2007; 1: 485-492.
71. Alhabib KF, Vedal S, Champion P, FitzGerald JM. The utility of ambulatory pH monitoring in patients presenting with chronic cough and asthma. Can J Gastroenterol 2007: 21: 159-163.
72. Nadadur SS, Miller A, Hopke PK, Gordon T, Vedal S, Vandenberg JJ, Costa DL. The complexities of air pollution regulation: the need for an integrated research and regulatory perspective. Toxicol Sci 2007; 100: 318-327.
73. Strand M, Hopke PK, Zhao W, Vedal S, Gelfand E, Rabinovitch N. A study of health effect estimates using competing methods to model personal exposures to ambient PM2.5. J Expos Sci Environ Epidemiol 2007; 17: 549-558.
74. Dutton SJ, Schauer JJ, Vedal S, Hannigan MP. PM2.5 characterization for time series studies: pointwise uncertainty estimation and bulk speciation methods applied in Denver. Atmos Environ 2009; 43: 1136-1146.
75. Vedal S, Hannigan MP, Dutton SJ, Miller SL, Milford JB, Rabinovitch N, Kim S-Y, Sheppard L. The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study: overview and early findings. Atmos Environ 2009; 43: 1666-1673.
76. Dutton SJ, Williams DE, Garcia JK, Vedal S, Hannigan MP. PM2.5 characterization for time series studies: organic molecular marker speciation methods and observations from daily measurements in Denver. Atmos Environ 2009; 43: 2018-2030.
77. Slama K, Chiang C-Y, Hinderaker SG, Bruce N, Vedal S, Enarson DA. Indoor solid fuel combustion and tuberculosis: is there an association? Internat J Tuber Lung Dis 2010; 14: 6-14.
78. Dutton SJ, Rajagopalan B, Vedal S, Hannigan MP. Temporal patterns in daily measurements of inorganic and organic speciated PM2.5 in Denver. Atmos Environ 2010; 44: 987-998.
79. Mauderly J, Burnett R, Castillejos M, Özkaynak H, Samet J, Steib D, Vedal S, Wyzga R. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multi-pollutant air quality management framework? Inhal Toxicol 2010; 22 (S1): 1-19.
80. Dutton SJ, Vedal S, Piedrahita R, Milford JB, Miller SL, Hannigan MP. Source apportionment using positive matrix factorization of inorganic and organic speciated PM2.5. Atmos Environ 2010; 44: 2731-2741.
81. Allen RW, Carlsten C, Karlen B, Leckie S, van Eeden S, Vedal S, Wong I, Brauer M. An air filter intervention study of endothelial function among healthy adults in a woodsmoke-impacted community. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183: 1222-1230.
82. Courtice M, Takaro T, Vedal S, Davies H. Asbestos-related disease in Bangladeshi shipbreakers: a pilot study. Int J Occup Environ Health 2011; 17: 144-153.
83. Cui L, Gallagher L, Ray RM, Wenjin L, Daoli G, Zhang Y, Vedal S, Thomas DB, Checkoway H. Unexpected excess chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality among female silk textile workers in Shanghai, China. Occup Environ Med 2011; 68: 883-887.
84. Kim S-Y, Peel JL, Hannigan MP, Dutton SJ, Sheppard L, Clark ML, Vedal S. The temporal lag structure of short-term associations of fine particulate matter chemical constituents and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations. Environ Health Perspect 2012; 120: 1094-9. PMID: 22609899.
85. Xie M, Hannigan MP, Dutton SJ, Milford JB, Hemann JG, Miller SL, Schauer J, Peel JL, Vedal S. Positive matrix factorization of PM2.5: comparison and implications of using different speciation data sets. Environ Sci Technol 2012; 46: 11962-70. doi: 10.1021/es302358g.
86. Xie M, Coons TL, Hemann JG, Dutton SJ, Peel JL, Milford JB, Miller SL, Kim S-Y, Vedal S, Hannigan MP. Intra-urban spatial variability and uncertainty assessment of PM2.5 sources based on carbonaceous species. Atmos Environ 2012; 60: 305-315.
87. Xie M, Coons TL, Dutton SJ, Milford JB, Miller SL, Peel JL, Vedal S, Hannigan MP. Intra-urban spatial variability of PM2.5-bound carbonaceous components. Atmos Environ 2012; 60: 486-494.
88. Adar SD, Sheppard L, Vedal S, Polak JF, Sampson PD, Diez Roux AV, Budoff M, Jacobs DR, Barr RG, Watson K, Kaufman JD. Fine particulate air pollution and the progression of carotid intima-medial thickness: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution. PLoS Medicine 2013; 10(4): e1001430. [doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001430]
89. Sun M, Kaufman JD, Kim S-Y, Larson T, Gould T, Polak JF, Budoff MJ, Diez Roux AV, Vedal S. Particulate matter components and subclinical atherosclerosis: common approaches to estimating exposure in a Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cross-sectional study. Environ Health 2013; 12: 39. [doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-39]
90. Xie M, Piedrahita R, Dutton SJ, Milford JB, Hemann JG, Peel JL, Miller SL, Kim S-Y, Vedal S, Sheppard L, Hannigan MP. Positive matrix factorization of a 32-month series of daily PM2.5 speciation data with incorporation of temperature stratification. Atmos Environ 2013 (in press).
91. Vedal S, Campen MJ, McDonald JD, Kaufman JD, Larson TV, Sampson PD, Sheppard EA, Simpson CD, Szpiro AA. National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative Report on Cardiovascular Effects. Section 1: Vedal S, Kim S-Y, Miller KA, Fox JR, Bergen S, Gould T, Kaufman JD, Larson TV, Sampson PD, Sheppard EA, Simpson CD, Szpiro AA. NPACT Epidemiologic Study of Components of Fine Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease in the MESA and WHI-OS Cohorts. Research Report 178, 2013. Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA (in press).
92. Bergen S, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Kim S-Y, Richards M, Vedal S, Kaufman JD, Szpiro AA. A national prediction model for components of PM2.5 and measurement error corrected health effect inference. Environ Health Perspect 2013 (in press).
93. Xie M, Barsanti KC, Hannigan MP, Dutton SJ, Vedal S. Positive matrix factorization of PM2.5: eliminating the effects of gas/particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds. Atmos Chem Physics 2013 (in press).
Invited Journal Review Articles
1. Vedal S. Outdoor air pollution and obstructive airways disease. Eur Respir Rev 1995; 5:323-326.
2. Vedal S. Health effects of ambient particles: lines that divide. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 1997; 47:551-581.
3. Vedal S. Lung health and the environment in developing countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1998; 2: S71-S76.
4. Vedal S. Update on the health effects of outdoor air pollution. In: Rose CS, Redlich C, eds. Occupational and environmental lung disease. Clinics Chest Med 2002; 23: 763-775.
Invited Journal Editorials
1. Vedal S. Asthma: countering sobering statistics. BC Med J 1992; 34:650.
2. Vedal S. Where there’s fire, there’s smoke. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 174:1168-1169.
3. Vedal S. Does air conditioning modify the effect of air pollution on mortality? Epidemiol 2009; 20: 687-688.
4. Vedal S. Traffic and cardiovascular disease: the challenge of estimating exposure. Occup Environ Med 2009; 66: 787-788.
5. Vedal S, Kaufman JD. What does multi-pollutant air pollution research mean? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183: 4-6.
Books and book chapters
1. Rom WN, Vedal S, Lockey J, et al. Other occupational lung diseases. In: Rom WN, ed. Environmental and occupational medicine. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.; 1983; 251-266.
2. Vedal S. Epidemiological studies of childhood illness and pulmonary function associated with gas stove use. In: Gammage RB and Kaye SV, eds. Indoor air and human health. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers, Inc.; 1985, 303-316.
3. Schenker MB and Vedal S. Occupational asthma. In: Gershwin ME, ed. Bronchial asthma: principles of diagnosis and treatment. 2nd ed. New York: Grune and Stratton; 1986; 297-312.
4. Enarson DA, Vedal S, Chan-Yeung M. Assessment of airways responsiveness in working populations. In: Handbook of Health and Safety in Agriculture. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1989; 19-22.
5. Vedal S and Chan-Yeung M. Airways responsiveness and atopy in occupational airways disease. In: Weiss ST, Sparrow D, eds. Airways responsiveness and atopy in the development of chronic lung disease. Boston: Raven Press; 1989; 271-292.
6. Schenker MB and Vedal S. Occupational asthma. In: Gershwin ME, ed. Bronchial asthma: principles of diagnosis and treatment. 3rd ed. New York: Grune and Stratton; 1994; 619-637.
7. Vedal S. The role of the outdoor environment in asthma. In: FitzGerald JM, Ernst P, Boulet L-P, O’Byrne P, eds. Evidence-based asthma. Hamilton, Ontario: BC Decker Inc.; 2000; 69-79.
8. Bates DV and Vedal S. Adverse health effects (Chapter 4). In: Bates DV, Caton RB, eds. A citizen’s guide to air pollution. 2nd ed. Vancouver: David Suzuki Foundation; 2002.
9. Vedal S and Sullivan JH. Particulate matter (Chapter 100). In: Rom WN, ed. Environmental and occupational medicine, 4th edition. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2007; 1487-1506.
10. Vedal S. Natural sources: wildland fires and volcanoes. In: Tarlo S, Cullinan P, Nemery B, eds. Occupational and environmental lung diseases: diseases from work, home, outdoor and other exposures. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010, 391-404.