Elaine M. Faustman, PhD

Professor, Env. and Occ. Health Sciences (Primary department)
Adjunct Professor, Evans School

Contact Information

Box: 354695
4225 Roosevelt Way NE
Seattle, WA 98105-
Tel: 206-685-2269

Research Interests

  • Developmental toxicology, risk assessment methodologies, molecular mechanisms of metals and pesticides
  • KEYWORDS: Biological monitoring, Birth defects, Children's health, Drug metabolism, Food additives & contaminants; In vitro toxicology; Nanotechnology; Pediatric environmental health; Pesticides and children; Reproductive toxicology; Risk communication; Risk management; Toxicogenomics

Education

PhD, Toxicology, Michigan State University, 1980

Projects

A. Neurodevelopmental Toxicity of Metals and Pesticides

The long-range objective of Dr. Faustman's research is two-fold: to identify biochemical mechanisms of developmental toxicity and to develop new methods for the evaluation of health risks posed by environmental agents. Major research efforts in the laboratory are currently directed towards metals, primarily methylmercury, arsenic, cadmium, pesticides, such as organophosphates, benomyl and N-Nitroso compounds, and other known carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens. In vitro experiments are performed using primary rat embryo cell cultures for CNS and limb tissues, and embryonal carcinoma cells to investigate mechanisms of developmental toxicity of these agents. Embryonal fibroblasts are also isolated from transgenic animals and used to evaluate the role of specific gene pathways in toxicant induced developmental effects. Dr. Faustman's efforts in risk assessment include an effort to combine results derived from laboratory experiments to develop mechanistically-based toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic models of developmental toxicity. Additionally, Dr. Faustman is involved in the development of new methods applicable to both cancer and non-cancer risk assessment. Currently, techniques are being developed to enhance our understanding of the cellular and molecular factors involved in normal and toxicant-perturbed neurodevelopment. Methodologies include microarray genomic and proteomic analyses for assessment of molecular impact of neurotoxicants of changes at the level of protein expression and function. Please contact the researcher listed with the individual project for more information on research opportunities.

1. Gene Expression Analyses as Early Biomarkers of Effect
The development of markers of toxicant effect that can be used to identify early adverse health risks from exposure to environmental agents is the focus of this effort. By detecting subtle, pre-clinical changes in health prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms, it may be possible to develop intervention strategies that can lead to a reduction in morbidity. One project involves the use of uroepithelial cells from individuals exposed to heat stress or heavy metals to look for molecular changes in stress response genes. Other projects examine sensitive developmental endpoints to understand early indicators of toxicant impacts following in utero exposure. The utilization of microarray techniques presents researchers an exciting and novel avenue in the assessment of toxicant induced changes in neurodevelopment. The goal is to couple these techniques with our existing methodologies to enhance our understanding of normal and perturbed neurodevelopment. Contact Dr. Jaspreet Sidhu at for more information.

2. Mechanisms of Methylmercury-induced Developmental Toxicity
Methylmercury is a known human developmental neurotoxicant. However, the primary mechanisms through which it inhibits development of the nervous system are not established. Current efforts to elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity of this agent include evaluation of the effects of methylmercury on the dynamics of cell cycling (i.e., changes in cell cycle genes and proteins following metal exposures), alterations in mitochondrial function, stress activation, proteasomal perturbation and apoptosis in the primary rat embryonic CNS cells. Mechanistic experiments are underway to determine how gene changes observed in the methylmercury exposed cells are related to these cellular processes. Work is also being done to expand this research to include solvents. Experimental procedures utilizing both microarray and 2D-PAGE/MS analyses will further our understanding of such processes.

3. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Metals: Mechanisms of Altered Cell Proliferation
Over the last five years, the Faustman lab has been performing basic research into the molecular controls underlying metal-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity. Using primary cultured neuroepithelial cells derived from the developing midbrain as the experimental model and transgenic animals, this research has explored the role of several cell cycle regulatory proteins, primarily p21 and p53, but also their upstream and downstream effects. Current efforts are focused on the possible role of altered mRNA and protein degradation in the observed alterations of these cell cycle regulatory molecules by metals. Experimental procedures utilizing both microarray and 2D-PAGE/MS analyses will further our understanding of such processes. Findings observed in vitro will be confirmed in vivo. Taken as a whole, such research will provide a basis for evaluating the effects of metals as developmental neurotoxicants and will provide a molecular basis for observed toxicity of metals on the developing nervous system.

4. Developmental of Improved Risk Assessment Methodologies
The estimation of human and ecological health risks from environmental agents, including both carcinogens and non-carcinogens, is based on risk models that use uncertain parameters. The key goal of this research project is to improve how we incorporate new scientific data and information into human health risk assessments. Towards this goal we have developed biologically based dose response (BBDR) models that show how to link basic mechanistic data from molecular and cellular toxicity studies with toxicological outcomes. We have focused our models on highly sensitive developmental periods. Contact Dr. Jaspreet Sidhu at for more information. Because of the tremendous resources that are committed to environmental control and remediation based on risk models, it is important to determine the level of uncertainty in these models. In addition to quantitative uncertainty analysis, there is a need to examine the gain expected from reducing parameter uncertainty (i.e. value-of-information analysis) and the effect on the decision outcome (i.e. decision analysis). Several projects are currently underway to address these issues including quantitative uncertainty analyses in exposure modeling, value-of-information analyses of improved biomarker information in risk assessments, and decision analysis to optimize worker protection by selecting from alternative medical monitoring strategies.

5. Analysis of Data from Gene Chip Microarrays
Gene chip microarrays are a new technology that can be used to inexpensively assay the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously. Because thousands of gene expression levels are measured this provides a new opportunity for constructing assays that may be able to more precisely describe human response and health effects from exposures to environmental pollutants. But, at the same time, it presents a challenge because it expands the amount of data available at a single time by a factor of thousands, complicating the process of understanding and sorting through the information. This project explores how methods from environmental health, bioinformatics, statistics and computer science can be used to help investigators in this process. This field is only beginning and there is a need to design strategies to take advantage of the strengths of many scientific disciplines in order to realize the potential of this new technology in public health.

B. Pesticide Exposure and Toxicity in Children

The Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research is another major IRARC research effort. The Center is jointly funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Center researchers are working to understand the biochemical, molecular, and exposure mechanisms that define children's susceptibility to pesticides. In addition, researchers are working to assess pesticide risks to normal development and learning.

7. Kinetics
What are the age- and pesticide-specific factors that must be considered in developing kinetic models for children of different ages, exposed to different levels of chlorpyrifos, arsenic, and azinphos methyl? How can we examine our current pesticide models to identify which parameters are most important in predicting pesticide blood levels following exposure? How can we include normal interindividual and other sources of variability in our modeling predictions? This project entails studying the mathematical sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo techniques, and then the incorporation of these techniques into an existing pesticide exposure model.

8. Dynamics
Organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos are widely used in both agriculture and the home. While chlorpyrifos is not grossly teratogenic except at very high doses, anomalies in cellular function and behavior have been seen following the exposure of neonatal rats to lower doses. The aim of the current project is to expand our knowledge of how this compound and its metabolites affect cellular differentiation events, focusing on cell cycle progression and apoptosis. This project will hopefully provide correlative biochemical data for another project, which will examine the behavioral responses of mice being exposed to chlorpyrifos during development.

9. Modeling
How can we mathematically model the toxicological impacts of pesticide exposures during development? How do these impacts relate to neurobehavioral impacts? Processes of cell cycle disruption and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, two of the most sensitive indicators of pesticide toxicity need to be evaluated for their contribution to the overall toxicity of pesticides. This project will require an analysis of the cell cycle models generated in the Faustman lab and examination of acetylcholinesterase inhibition data in order to generate dynamic models that simulate toxicity following pesticide exposure.

C. Improving Risk Management and Regulation

This is a focus of research for the Center for the Study and Improvement of Regulation. A joint project between Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Washington; the mission of the Center is to examine and to improve existing environmental, health and safety regulations at the federal, state and local levels by providing frameworks for incorporation of new technologies and application of new science. An important emphasis of these projects is an assessment of risk management options and approaches.

10. Toxin Exposure and Seafood
Consumption of contaminated fish is a major route of exposure to biotoxins including domoic acid. Since domoic acid has been associated with neurobehavioral deficits following epidemiological human exposure, there are concerns about this exposure particularly for children and groups such as Native American tribes and Asian and Pacific Islanders with high rates of fish consumption. Our research has focused on analytical needs for testing of fish to assess potential health risks for all consumers. We are also looking at the human dietary and behavioral factors that influence susceptibility to domoic exposure and health risk. This has included probabilistic modeling work and consideration of cost using value of information approaches. This work is part of the newly funded Pacific Northwest Center for Human Health and Ocean Studies.

11. The Fast Environmental Regulatory Evaluation Tool
The Fast Environmental Regulatory Evaluation Tool (FERET) is designed as a computerized benefit-cost template that has been developed from US EPA air pollution models to assess the potential health and economic benefits from reducing air pollution. We have taken the complicated benefit-cost models used within federal regulatory agencies and made it user-friendly for stakeholders. Benefit-cost analysis is being used at the federal and state level to evaluate new regulations and regulatory alternatives. Future work will expand the current module dealing with air pollution issues to ground and surface water regulatory issues and to focus on children's health issues.

12. Comparative Risk
Regulatory policies must sometimes weigh the relative beneficial and detrimental effects of such varied things as fish consumption (versus exposure to fish contaminants), breast feeding (versus exposure to fat-soluble environmental contaminants), eating fruits and vegetables (versus exposure to pesticides via the food chain), and drinking water chlorination (bacterial versus chemical risks) in order to maximize public health. Although quantitative methods are commonly used to evaluate health risks, such methods have not been generally applied to evaluating the health benefits associated with modifying environmental exposures. A quantitative method for risk-benefit analysis that allows for consideration of diverse health endpoints is being developed.

D. Risk Management and Risk Communication

13. Translational research
Translational research converts environmental health science findings into tools that can be applied by health care providers, regulators and community residents to improve public health outcomes. Several IRARC projects seek to make our research more transparent and accessible to policy-makers, stakeholders and the general public. The Child Health Center's research mapping initiative translates and communicates scientific findings to a broader audience of stakeholders in a way that facilitates dialogue among them. The project will develop an integrated framework that identifies a) what we know about pesticide risks and children's health (from both scientists and interested parties), b) what we are learning from our current studies c) how this information can be used to inform public health and policy to improve children's health and d) what we still need to learn in order to address these issues (i.e., critical data needs). This project would be appropriate for a student interested in methods development for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication, with an obvious emphasis on policy.

14. Data Integration and Informatics
Coordinated efforts between oceanographic, public and environmental health research communities are needed to assess the risks to human health generated by the oceans. Linking research among members of the scientific community is no small task given the variety of research questions, data collection and analysis methods and reporting techniques and formats utilized by these groups.
Within the Pacific Northwest Center for Human Health and Ocean Studies an Informatics Facility Core has been established to overcome the barriers involved in sharing, interpreting, translating, documenting and archiving data and information in an interdisciplinary and true collaborative research setting. Students participating in this project will focus on two broad goals. The first is to facilitate transparent data, information and knowledge exchange among scientific researchers. The second is to facilitate the framing and informing processes required to place Center research in a broader policy context. There is the opportunity to work with four subgroups: risk evaluation, data integration, GIS and visualization, and outreach.

15. Health, oceans and urban land use
As human inhabitation and use of coastal areas increases, so does the incidence of aquatic-borne disease from contact with contaminated water, toxic algal blooms and eating contaminated marine food products. While research has shown that urbanization alters water quality, the relationships between oceans, human health and urbanization are poorly understood. This project is developing an integrated spatial framework to quantify and assess the relationships between urban development, environmental stressors (pollution, pathogens), human exposure and associated effects on marine ecosystems and human health. We are collaborating with the UW Urban Ecology Laboratory on this project, which is funded by the US EPA, Region 10 Regional Geographic Initiative. A major part of our contribution to the project will be providing the exposure and health risk assessment frameworks and data for the Pacific Northwest Center for Human Health and Ocean Studies.

Selected Publications

Selected Publication Highlights 2000-Present

  1. Bartell S, Ponce R, Takaro T, Zerbe R, Omenn G and Faustman E. Risk estimation and value-of-information analysis for three proposed genetic screening programs for chronic beryllium disease prevention. Risk Analysis. 2000; 20(1): 87-99.
  2. Bartell SM, Ponce RA, Sanga RN and Faustman EM. Human variability in mercury toxicokinetics and steady state biomarker ratios. Environ Res. 2000; 84(2): 127-32.
  3. Faustman EM, Silbernagel S, Fenske R, Burbacher T and Ponce R. Mechanisms underlying children's susceptibility to environmental toxicants. Environ Health Perspect. 2000; 108 Suppl 1: 13-21.
  4. Ponce RA, Bartell SM, Wong EY, LaFlamme D, Carrington C, Lee RC, Patrick DL, Faustman EM and Bolger M. Use of quality-adjusted life year weights with dose-response models for public health decisions: a case study of the risks and benefits of fish consumption. Risk Anal. 2000; 20(4): 529-42.
  5. Luderer U, Kavanagh TJ, White CC and Faustman EM. Gonadotropin regulation of glutathione synthesis in the rat ovary. Reprod Toxicol. 2001; 15(5): 495-504.
  6. Ponce RA, Wong EY and Faustman EM. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and dose-response models in environmental health policy analysis -- methodological considerations. Sci Total Environ. 2001; 274(1-3): 79-91.
  7. Sanga R, Bartell S, Ponce R, Boischio A, Joiris C, Pierce C and Faustman E. Effects of uncertainties on exposure estimates to methylmercury: a Monte Carlo analysis of exposure biomarkers versus dietary recall estimation. Risk Analysis. 2001; 21(5): 859-68.
  8. Faustman EM, Ponce RA, Ou YC, Mendoza MA, Lewandowski T and Kavanagh T. Investigations of methylmercury-induced alterations in neurogenesis. Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110 Suppl 5: 859-64.
  9. Gohlke J, Griffith W, Bartell S, Lewandowski T and Faustman E. A computational model for neocortical neuronogenesis predicts ethanol-induced neocortical neuron number deficits. Dev Neurosci. 2002; 24(6): 467-77.
  10. Judd NL., Griffith WC., Ylitalo GM. and Faustman EM. Alternative strategies for PCB risk reduction from contaminated seafood: Options for children as susceptible populations. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2002: 69(6): 847-854.
  11. Kavlock R, Boekelheide K, Chapin R, Cunningham M, Faustman E, Foster P, Golub M, Henderson R, Hinberg I, Little R, Seed J, Shea K, Tabacova S, Tyl R, Williams P and Zacharewski T. NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di-n-octyl phthalate. Reprod Toxicol. 2002; 16(5): 721-34.
  12. Kavlock R, Boekelheide K, Chapin R, Cunningham M, Faustman E, Foster P, Golub M, Henderson R, Hinberg I, Little R, Seed J, Shea K, Tabacova S, Tyl R, Williams P and Zacharewski T. NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di-isodecyl phthalate. Reprod Toxicol. 2002; 16(5): 655-78.
  13. Kavlock R, Boekelheide K, Chapin R, Cunningham M, Faustman E, Foster P, Golub M, Henderson R, Hinberg I, Little R, Seed J, Shea K, Tabacova S, Tyl R, Williams P and Zacharewski T. NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di-n-butyl phthalate. Reprod Toxicol. 2002; 16(5): 489-527.
  14. Lewandowski TA, Pierce CH, Pingree SD, Hong S and Faustman EM. Methylmercury distribution in the pregnant rat and embryo during early midbrain organogenesis. Teratology. 2002; 66(5): 235-41.
  15. Drew CH, Grace DA, Silbernagel SM, Hemmings ES, Smith A, Griffith WC, Takaro TK and Faustman EM. Nuclear waste transportation: case studies of identifying stakeholder risk information needs. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111(3): 263-72.
  16. Judd NL., Griffith WC., Kalman DA. and Faustman EM. Assessment of PCB congener analytical methods: Do they meet risk assessment needs? Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2003: 44(1): 132-139.
  17. Judd NL, Griffith WC, Takaro T and Faustman EM. A model for optimization of biomarker testing frequency to minimize disease and cost: Example of beryllium sensitization testing. Risk Analysis. 2003; 23(6): 1211-1220.
  18. Judd NL, Karr JR, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. Challenges in defining background levels for human and ecological risk assessments. Human and Ecological Risk Analysis. 2003; 9: 1623-1632.
  19. Lewandowski TA, Ponce RA, Charleston JS, Hong S and Faustman EM. Effect of methylmercury on midbrain cell proliferation during organogenesis: potential cross-species differences and implications for risk assessment. Toxicol Sci. 2003; 75(1): 124-33.
  20. Wong EY, Ponce RA, Farrow S, Bartell SM, Lee RC and Faustman EM. Comparative risk and policy analysis in environmental health. Risk Analysis. 2003; 23(6): 1337-1349.
  21. Bartell SM, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. Temporal error in biomarker-based mean exposure estimates for individuals. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology. 2004; 14(2): 173-179.
  22. Daston G, Faustman EM, Ginsberg G, Fenner-Crisp P, Olin S, Sonawane B, Bruckner J, Breslin W and McLaughlin TJ. A framework for assessing risks to children from exposure to environmental agents. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2004; 112(2): 238-56.
  23. Gohlke JM, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. The role of cell death during neocortical neurogenesis and synaptogenesis: implications from a computational model for the rat and mouse. Developmental Brain Research. 2004; 151(1-2): 43-54.
  24. Judd N, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. Contribution of PCB exposure from fish consumption to total dioxin-like dietary exposure. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2004; 40(2): 125-135.
  25. Judd NL, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. Consideration of cultural and lifestyle factors in defining susceptible populations for environmental disease. Toxicology. 2004; 198(1-3): 121-133.
  26. Wong EY, Gohlke J, Griffith WC, Farrow S and Faustman EM. Assessing the health benefits of air pollution reduction for children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2004; 112(2): 226-232.
  27. Eskenazi B, Gladstone EA, Berkowitz G, Drew CH, Faustman EM, Holland NT, Lanphear B, Meisel SJ, Perera FP, Rauh VA, Sweeney A, Whyatt RM and Yolton K. Methodologic and logistic issues in conducting longitudinal birth cohort studies: Lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005; 113(10): 1419-1429.
  28. Faustman EM, Gohlke J, Judd NL, Lewandowski TA, Bartell SA and Griffith WC. Modeling developmental processes in animals: applications in neurodevelopmental toxicology. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2005; 19(3): 615-624.
  29. Gohlke JM, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. A systems-based computational model for dose-response comparisons of two mode of action hypotheses for ethanol-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity. Toxicological Sciences. 2005; 86(2): 470-484.
  30. Gribble EJ, Hong SW and Faustman EM. The magnitude of methylmercury-induced cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest is p53-dependent. Birth Defects Research Part a-Clinical and Molecular Teratology. 2005; 73(1): 29-38.
  31. Judd NL, Drew CH, Acharya C, Mitchell TA, Donatuto JL, Burns GW, Burbacher TM and Faustman EM. Framing scientific analyses for risk management of environmental hazards by communities: Case studies with seafood safety issues. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2005; 113(11): 1502-1508.
  32. Slikker W, Young JF, Corley RA, Dorman DC, Conolly RB, Knudsen TB, Erstad BL, Luecke RH, Faustman EM, Timchalk C and Mattison DR. Improving predictive modeling in pediatric drug development: Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and mechanistic modeling. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2005; 1053: 505-518.
  33. Yu XZ, Sidhu JS, Hong S and Faustman EM. Essential role of extracellular matrix (ECM) overlay in establishing the functional integrity of primary neonatal rat sertoli cell/gonocyte co-cultures: An improved In vitro model for assessment of male reproductive toxicity. Toxicological Sciences. 2005; 84(2): 378-393.
  34. Coronado GD, Vigoren EM, Thompson B, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. Organophosphate pesticide exposure and work in pome fruit: Evidence for the take-home pesticide pathway. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006; 114(7): 999-1006.
  35. Kramer CB, Cullen AC and Faustman EM. Policy implications of genetic information on regulation under the Clean Air Act: The case of particulate matter and asthmatics. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006; 114(3): 313-319.
  36. Sidhu JS, Ponce RA, Vredevoogd MA, Yu XZ, Gribble E, Hong SW, Schneider E and Faustman EM. Cell cycle inhibition by sodium arsenite in primary embryonic rat midbrain neuroepithelial cells. Toxicological Sciences. 2006; 89(2): 475-484.
  37. Spielmann H, Seiler A, Bremer S, Hareng L, Hartung T, Ahr H, Faustman EM, Haas U, Moffat GJ, Nau H, Vanparys P, Piersma A, Sintes JR and Stuart J. The practical application of three validated in vitro embryo toxicity tests. The report and recommendations of an ECV AM/ZEBET workshop (ECV AM workshop 57). Altern Lab Anim. 2006; 34(5): 527-38.
  38. Yu XZ, Griffith WC, Hanspers K, Dillman JF, Ong H, Vredevoogd MA and Faustman EM. A system-based approach to interpret dose- and time-dependent microarray data: Quantitative integration of gene ontology analysis for risk assessment. Toxicological Sciences. 2006; 92(2): 560-577.
  39. Drew CH, Kern M, Martin T, Blozek ML, Power M and Faustman EM. The Hanford Openness Workshops: Fostering Open and transparent long-term decision making at the department of energy. Long Term Management of Contaminated Sites. Research in Social Problems and Public Policy. Elsevier. 2007; 13: 13-48.
  40. Gohlke JM, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. Computational models of neocortical neuronogenesis and programmed cell death in the developing mouse, monkey, and human. Cerebral Cortex. 2007; 17(10): 2433-2442.
  41. Cullen AC, Corrales MA, Kramer CB and Faustman EM. The application of genetic information for regulatory standard setting under the Clean Air Act: A decision-analytic approach. Risk Analysis. 2008; 28(4): 877-890.
  42. Gohlke JM, Griffith WC and Faustman EM. Computational models of ethanol-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity across species: Implications for risk assessment. Birth Defects Research Part B-Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology. 2008; 83(1): 1-11.
  43. Gohlke JM, Hiller-Sturmhofel S and Faustman EM. A systems-based computational model of alcohol's toxic effects on brain development. Alcohol Research & Health. 2008; 31(1): 76-83.
  44. Kite-Powell H, Fleming L, Backer L, Faustman E, Hoagland P, Tsuchiya A, Younglove L, Wilcox B and Gast R. Linking the oceans to public health: Where is the “human health” in “oceans and human health”? . Environmental Health. 2008; 7(Supp2).
  45. Scherer AC, Tsuchiya A, Younglove LR, Burbacher TM and Faustman EM. A Comparative Analysis of State Fish Consumption Advisories Targeting Sensitive Populations. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2008; 116(12): 1598-1606.
  46. Thompson B, Coronado GD, Vigoren EM, Griffith WC, Fenske RA, Kissel JC, Shirai JH and Faustman EM. Para Ninos Saludables: A community intervention trial to reduce organophosphate pesticide exposure in children of farmworkers. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2008; 116(5): 687-694.
  47. Tsuchiya A, Hardy J, Burbacher TM, Faustman EM and Marien K. Fish intake guidelines: incorporating n-3 fatty acid intake and contaminant exposure in the Korean and Japanese communities. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2008; 87(6): 1867-1875.
  48. Tsuchiya A, Hinners TA, Burbacher TM, Faustman EM and Marien K. Mercury exposure from fish consumption within the Japanese and Korean communities. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part a-Current Issues. 2008; 71(15): 1019-1031.
  49. Yu X, Robinson JF, Gribble E, Hong SW, Sidhu JS and Faustman EM. Gene expression profiling analysis reveals arsenic-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in p53-proficient and p53-deficient cells through differential gene pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008; 233(3): 389-403.
  50. Yu XZ, Hong SW and Faustman EM. Cadmium-induced activation of stress signaling pathways, disruption of ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and apoptosis in primary rat Sertoli cell-gonocyte cocultures. Toxicological Sciences. 2008; 104(2): 385-396.
  51. Robinson JF, Yu X, Hong S, Beyer RP, Kim E and Faustman EM. Cadmium-induced differential toxicogenomic response in resistant and sensitive mouse strains undergoing neurulation. Toxicological Sciences. 2009; 107(1): 206-219.
  52. Ramaprasad J, Tsai MG, Fenske RA, Faustman EM, Griffith WC, Felsot AS, Elgethun K, Weppner S and Yost MG. Children's inhalation exposure to methamidophos from sprayed potato fields in Washington State: Exploring the use of probabilistic modeling of meteorological data in exposure assessment. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2009: 19(6): 613-23.
  53. Coronado G.D., Vigoren E.M., Griffith W.C., Faustman EM. and Thompson B. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure Among Pome and Non-Pome Farmworkers: A Subgroup Analysis of a Community Randomized Trial. J Occup Environ Med. 2009: 51(4): 500-509.
  54. Cleland B, Tsuchiya A, Kalman DA, Dills R, Burbacher TM, White JW, Faustman EM and Marien K. Arsenic Exposure Within the Korean Community (U.S.A.) Based on Dietary Behavior and As Levels in Hair, Urine, Air and Water. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2009; 117(4): 632–638.
  55. Yu X, Hong S, Moreira EG, Faustman EM. Improving in vitro Sertoli cell/gonocyte co-culture model for assessing male reproductive toxicity: Lessons learned from comparisons of cytotoxicity versus genomic responses to phthalates. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2009 Sep 15;239(3):325-36.
  56. Tsuchiya A, Hinners TA, Krogstad F, White JW, Burbacher TM, Faustman EM, Marien K. Longitudinal Mercury Monitoring Within the Japanese And Korean Communities (U.S.); Implications for Exposure Determination and Public Health Protection. Environ Health Perspect. 2009: 117(11): 1760-6.
  57. Krogstad  FTO, Griffith WC, Vigoren EM, Faustman EM. Re-evaluating blue mussel depuration rates in ‘Dynamics of the phycotoxin domoic acid: accumulation and excretion in two commercially important bivalves’.  Journal of Applied Phycology. 2009: 21:745–746.
  58. Grant K.S., Burbacher T.M. and Faustman EM.  Domoic Acid: Neurobehavioral Consequences of Exposure to a Prevalent Marine Biotoxin. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2010: 32(2): 132-141.
  59. Robinson J.F. , Guerrette Z. , Yu X.Z., Hong S. and Faustman EM. A Systems-Based Approach to Investigate Dose and Time Dependent Methylmercury-induced Gene Expression Response in C57BL/6 Mouse Embryos undergoing Neurulation. Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology: 2010: 89(3):188-200.
  60. Robinson J.F., Yu X., Hong S., Zhou C. , Kim N. , Demasi D. and Faustman EM. Embryonic toxicokinetic and dynamic differences underlying strain sensitivity to cadmium during neurulation. Reprod Toxicol. 2010: 29(3): 279-85.
  61. Yu X., Robinson J.F. , Sidhu J.S., Hong S. and Faustman EM.  A system-based comparison of gene expression reveals alterations in oxidative stress, disruption of ubiquitin-proteasome system and altered cell cycle regulation after exposure to cadmium and methylmercury in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast (MEF). Toxicol Sci. 2010: 114(2):356-77.
  62. Moreira EG, Yu X, Robinson JF, Griffith WC, Hong S, Beyer R, Bammler TK, and Faustman EM, Toxicogenomic profiling in maternal and fetal rodent brains following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 2010: 245(3):310-25.
  63. Costa LG, Giordano G and Faustman EM. Domoic acid as a developmental neurotoxin. Neurotoxicology 2010: 31(5): 409-23.
  64. Coronado, GD, Griffith, WC, Vigoren, EM, Faustman, EM and Thompson, B Where's the dust? Characterizing locations of azinphos-methyl residues in house and vehicle dust among farmworkers with young children. J Occup Environ Hyg 2010: 7(12): 663-671.
  65. Robinson JF, Griffith WC, Yu X, Hong S, Kim E, and Faustman EM, Methylmercury induced toxicogenomic response in C57 and SWV mouse embryos undergoing neural tube closure. Reproductive Toxicology, 2010: 30(2): 284-91.
  66. Robinson JF, Port JA, Yu X, and Faustman EM, Integrating Genetic and Toxicogenomic Information For Determining Underlying Susceptibility to Developmental Disorders. Birth Defects Research Part A-Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 2010:  88(10): 920-930.
  67. Robinson JF, Yu X, Moreira EG, Hong S, and Faustman EM, Arsenic- and cadmium-induced toxicogenomic response in mouse embryos undergoing neurulation. Toxicol Appl Pharm. 2011: 250(2): 117-129.
  68. Yu X, Sidhu JS, Hong S, Robinson JF, Ponce RA, and Faustman EM, Cadmium Induced p53-Dependent Activation of Stress Signaling, Accumulation of Ubiquitinated Proteins, and Apoptosis in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cells. Toxicol Sci, 2011. 120(2): p. 403-12.
  69. Robinson JF, Theunissen PT, van Dartel DA, Pennings JL, Faustman EM, and Piersma AH, Comparison of MeHg-induced toxicogenomic responses across in vivo and in vitro models used in developmental toxicology. Reproductive Toxicology, 2011. 32(2): p. 180-8.
  70. Yu X, Sidhu J, Hong S, Robinson JF, Faustman EM. Cadmium induced activation of stress signaling, accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Toxicological Sciences. 2011: 120(2): p. 403-12.
  71. Giordano G, Hong S, Faustman EM, and Costa LG, Measurements of Cell Death in Neuronal and Glial Cells. Methods Mol Biol, 2011. 758: p. 171-178.
  72. Hartung T, Blaauboer BJ, Bosgra S, Carney E, Coenen J, Conolly RB, Corsini E, Green S, Faustman EM, Gaspari A, Hayashi M, Wallace Hayes A, Hengstler JG, Knudsen LE, Knudsen TB, McKim JM, Pfaller W, Roggen EL. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Cosmetics Testing: Current Status and Future Prospects - 2010". ALTEX 28: 183-209, 2011.
  73. Griffith, W, Curl, CL, Fenske, RA, Lu, CA, Vigoren, EM and Faustman, EM. 2011. Organophosphate pesticide metabolite levels in pre-school children in an agricultural community: within- and between-child variability in a longitudinal study. Environmental Research. 111(6): 751-6
  74. Giordano, G, Hong, S, Faustman, EM and Costa, LG. 2011. Measurements of Cell Death in Neuronal and Glial Cells. Methods Mol Biol. 758: 171-178.PMID:21815065.
  75. Coronado, GD, Holte, S, Vigoren, EM, Griffith, WC, Faustman, EM and Thompson, B. 2011. Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Residential Proximity to Nearby Fields: Evidence for the Drift Pathway. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 53(8): 884-891.PMID:21775902.
  76. Tsuchiya, A, Duff, R, Stern, AH, White, JW, Krogstad, F, Burbacher, TM, Faustman, EM, and Marien, K 2012. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States). Environ Health. 11(1): 37. PMCID: PMC3410813.
  77. Nonnenmann, MW, Corondao, G, Thompson, B, Griffith, WC, Hanson, JD, Vesper, S, and Faustman, EM 2012. Utilizing Pyrosequencing and Quantitative PCR to Characterize Fungal Populations among House Dust Samples in the National Children’s Study. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 14(8): 2038-2043.
  78. Coronado, GD, Holte, SE, Vigoren, EM, Griffith, WC, Barr, DB, Faustman, EM, and Thompson, B. 2012. Do Workplace and Home Protective Practices Protect Farm Workers? Findings From the "For Healthy Kids" Study. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 54(9): 1163-1169.
  79. Port, JA, Wallace, JC, Krogstad, FTO, and Faustman, EM 2012. Metagenomic profiling of microbial composition and antibiotic resistance determinants in Puget Sound. PLoS One. 7(10):e48000. PMCID: PMC3483302.
  80. Hinners T, Tsuchiya A, Stern AH, Burbacher TM, Faustman EM, Mariën K. 2012. Chronologically matched toenail-Hg to hair-Hg ratio: temporal analysis within the Japanese community (U.S.). Environ Health. 11:81. PMCID: PMC3511224.
  81. McMillin MJ, Below JE, Shively KM, Beck AE, Gildersleeve HI, Pinner J, Gogola GR, Hecht JT, Grange DK, Harris DJ, Earl DL, Jagadeesh S, Mehta SG, Robertson SP, Swanson JM, Faustman EM, Mefford HC, Shendure J, Nickerson DA, Bamshad MJ; the University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics. 2013. Mutations in ECEL1 Cause Distal Arthrogryposis Type 5D. Am J Hum Genet. Epub ahead of print.
  82. Below JE, Earl DL, Shively KM, McMillin MJ, Smith JD, Turner EH, Stephan MJ, Al-Gazali LI, Hertecant JL, Chitayat D, Unger S, Cohn DH, Krakow D, Swanson JM, Faustman EM, Shendure J, Nickerson DA, Bamshad MJ; University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics. 2013. Whole-Genome Analysis Reveals that Mutations in Inositol Polyphosphate Phosphatase-like 1 Cause Opsismodysplasia. Am J Hum Genet. Epub ahead of print.
  83. Port JA, Parker MS, Kodner RB, Wallace JC, Armbrust EV, Faustman EM. 2013: Accepted. Identification of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway proteins in marine diatoms using comparative genomics. BioMed Central.
  84. Vivian Lee, Xiaoge Hu, Xiaohu Gao, Elaine M. Faustman, William C. Griffith, Terrance J. Kavanagh, David L. Eaton, William C. Parks, John K. McGuire. 2013: Submitted. Amphiphilic polymer-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induce pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in mouse lung epithelial cells and macrophages.
  85. Thompson B., Griffith W.C., Barr D.B., Coronado GD, Vigoren EM, Faustman EM. 2013: Submitted. Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers and their Children in the Center for Child Environmental Health:  Variability in the Take-Home Pathway. JESEE.
  86. Smith M, Griffith WC, Beresford SAA, Vredevoogd M, Vigoren EM, Faustman EM. 2013: Submitted. Using a Biokinetic Model to Quantify and Optimize Cortisol Measurements for Acute and Chronic Environmental Stress Exposure During Pregnancy.
  87. Clewell HJ, Teeguarden JG, Georgopoulos PG, Telesca D, Faustman EM, Yoon M. 2013: In Preparation. Risk assessments for engineered nanomaterials: Addressing the unique challenges.
  88. Lisa A. Mcconnachie, Dianne Botta, Collin White1, Chad Weldy, Hui-wen Wilkerson, Jjianbo Yu, Russel Dills, Xiaozhong Yu, William C. Griffith, Elaine M. Faustman, Federico M. Farin, Sean E. Gill, William C. Parks, Xiaoge Hu, Xiaohu Gao, David I. Eaton and Terrance J. Kavanagh. 2013: In Preparation. The Glutathione Synthesis Gene GCLM Modulates Amphiphilic Polymer-Coated CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot–Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice.
Review date: 
4/19/2012